Our students have conducted exciting research in a variety of areas over the years.
MRP / Thesis Abstracts
Striving For A Future Far From Home: How Somali Refugees Youth Use Social Networks to Escape Dangers and Challenges in Somalia
Somalia has been one of the largest refugees producing countries since the civil war started nearly 30 years ago. My research looks at how Somali refugee youth (18-26) use the available social networks within Somalia to escape the dangers and challenges they face at home. It highlights the challenges faced by Somalis within their country. This work critically examines the historical roots of the Somali Civil War and how the conflict led to the lasting power of the existing dominant social networks. This paper focuses on how Somali refugee youth negotiate membership and use their membership to social networks in order to lower their risk for abuse and other danger during their migration to Europe. Lastly this paper puts forth possible solutions for the Somali Government and relevant non-state actors that are crucial to retaining Somali youth within their country.
State of Decay: Decolonizing Indigenous Health and Development Discourse in Costa Rica
Costa Rica is often hailed as a bastion of stability and human development in a politically troubled region. However, the progress made over the last century has generally excluded the country’s Indigenous minorities, which continue to struggle with Costa Rica’s colonial legacy. Despite decades of direct state intervention, the vast majority of Costa Rica’s Indigenous population continues to lack access to basic necessities such as health services, education, and adequate shelter, a crisis which the United Nations Development Program has described as the country’s foremost development challenge. The disparity is best exemplified by health inequalities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Costa Ricans, a factor which is often overlooked by contemporary assessments of the national health system.
In response to the health gap, the government has sought to expand the famous “one size fits all” approach to health in Indigenous territories, a strategy which has failed to adequately address and surmount Indigenous health inequalities in other countries around the world. In order to understand how these processes are experienced by Indigenous Costa Ricans, I conducted fieldwork among the Indigenous communities of Buenos Aires cantón in the summer of 2019. Through a combination of interpretive techniques, I explored the underlying social, political, economic, and cultural tensions between state institutions, community members, and Indigenous civil society organizations.
My results demonstrate that the contemporary effects of neo-colonial processes continue to impede the effective and culturally appropriate delivery of health care to Indigenous communities in Costa Rica. I examine the process through which Indigenous civil society organizations have developed their own strategies for pursuing culturally appropriate and politically autonomous approaches to health. These strategies are welcomed by Indigenous community members, whose experiences highlight a history of racism, acculturation, and negligence on the part of state health care providers. Through a decolonizing approach to Indigenous research, this paper seeks to contribute to the literature on health and development in Latin America by highlighting the immense challenges that Indigenous Costa Ricans face as they fight for the health, wellbeing, and autonomy of their communities.
Visual Representations in The Field: Policies and Practices of Photography in Ethiopia
My research examines the policies and practices associated with photography at major international development organizations operating in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a series of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with communications officers working at these organizations, photographers, and photo subjects, as well as an examination of the official communications guidelines of the same organizations. The research was conducted over three months of fieldwork located in Addis Ababa, with some additional interviews in Asosa in the west. My work seeks to engage with and expand the literature of development photography practices, limited mostly to studies of communications officers, by taking a more holistic approach to photography, by viewing it as a series of actions guided by multiple actors’ decisions. To this end, I identify a general agenda of photography projects, theorize about the philosophies of individuals and organizations operating in this field, and look to define the concept of dignity.
Examining Accessibility and Experiences of Refugees and Migrants in Higher Education: A case the Thai-Burma Border
This research paper explores the educational experiences of the 2010–2012 cohort of refugees and migrants from Burma who successfully graduated with a Diploma in Liberal Studies from the ACU program. The ACU program is an accredited, 18-month, blended, higher education program involving both face-to-face and digital learning offered in partnership with York University and other universities in the United States.
The study examines the students’ successful pathways into the ACU program, valued achievements from the program, and outcomes upon graduation. Utilizing Amartya Sen’s capability approach as the guiding theory, the findings produced in this research paper looks at the intrinsic values of education as told by the students, the enabling factors in the environment, and whether the students’ capabilities and freedoms have been expanded to achieve their desired functioning by the end of the program. Given the reliance on quantitative measurements in the education development field, a qualitative methodology was utilized instead to gather data from participants during the summer fieldwork process. The findings have implications for recognizing refugee and migrant students’ previous forms of capital, the importance of a holistic education program, and the removal of systemic barriers preventing full agency and achievements of highly educated, displaced populations. The study concludes with challenges, further research, and implications for other higher education programs offered to refugees and migrants as a gateway towards other opportunities in life.
Stateless Palestinian Youth in Jordan: Negotiating Poverty and Durable Solutions Beyond Legal Status
A significant body of research focuses on understanding ‘refugee agency’ beyond the legal frameworks institutionalized by the global refugee regime and hosting states. Situated within a critical approach, this thesis bridges displacement and development studies so as to expand our understanding of refugee agency. The study examines how the legal status of de jure stateless Palestinian refugee youth informs their negotiation of poverty-related constraints to enhance their livelihood. The research consists of a comparative approach that juxtaposes two groups of Palestinian refugees —stateless (Gazans) and naturalized— living in Amman, Jordan. A multidisciplinary analysis reveals that both groups exercise similar forms of agency interlinked to meanings they give to their lives’ trajectories to i) capture ontological security, and ii) challenge accumulative disadvantage. Hence, ‘refugee agency’ needs to be reconceptualized to reflect its evolving and interchangeable nature, embedded in the interplay between subjectively produced meanings and livelihood outcomes in urban settings.
Invisible Farmers: A Gendered Perspective on Agricultural Development
Within the broad topics of gender and agricultural development, my research
takes focus on agricultural education and extension services and female farmer
empowerment. It aims to compare the effects of female farmers’ participation in farmers groups, as a development initiative, on gender equality outcomes from the perspective of the farmers, in the context of Bali, Indonesia. This analysis is based on a series of semi structured interviews conducted with farmers associated with farmers groups in the regions of Bedugul and Denpasar, over the span of three months. My work seeks to expand on the literature of development practices within gender and agriculture, as well as, gender mainstreaming discourse, limited to scope of gender relations and empowerment within the familial structure in the agricultural communities. I identify the various motivations, barriers and enabling factors to gaining membership in farmers groups for female farmers. I also explore the benefits, advantages and disadvantages of membership to ascertain empowerment outcomes for female farmers participating in farmers’ groups.
Between Sanctuary and Indifference: Local Responses to Migrant Illegalization in Naples, Italy
This paper explores an emerging partnership between the municipality of Naples, Italy and local civil society organizations (CSOs) to provide improved access to rights for migrants of mixed legal status considering the Italian state’s withdrawal from direct involvement in migration management within its own borders. Although recent shifts in the European Union’s approach to migration in the Central Mediterranean have reduced the annual number of seaborne arrivals to Italy from Libya, the long-term future for previously settled migrants is an unfolding issue. Based upon 3 months of fieldwork in Naples during the summer of 2019, this research explores the extent to which the inclusive approach of the collaborative, CSO-city intervention has decoupled from an increasingly exclusionary turn in national migration policy under the watch of an explicitly anti-immigrant government. To better understand the apparent political conflict between city and state the case is first examined through the prism of the sanctuary city, revealing that existing literature based on this concept may only partially explain the Neapolitan response to the increasing neglect for—and ongoing illegalization of—migrant lives. Based on interviews with stakeholders throughout the local migrant residences, drop-in centres, and municipal offices, this paper suggests that although the CSO-city partnership attempts to respond to the withdrawal of the state, the observable acts of sanctuary are not necessarily oppositional to the overall approach to migration governance pursued by the Italian government. Critically, the state is aware of the growing population of illegalized migrants who pursue informal livelihoods as de facto residents in the city yet chooses not to expend significant resources facilitating either systematic integration or strict immigration enforcement. Thus, a CSO-city intervention which aims to marginally improve the stability and prospects of people with mixed legal status in Naples must be reconsidered as an element of a national policy of indifference which strategically devolves responsibilities to local actors. Ultimately, whether a given migrant is a formal legal resident is only one factor in the population-wide trajectory towards de facto integration. In the absence of a coherent integration system migrants are left to seek out livelihoods as precarious workers with a subordinate socio-economic position. Thus, this paper concludes by arguing that, despite the degree to which the collaborative CSO-city effort to mitigate some issues experienced by migrants may render Naples a sanctuary city, the principal concern for the long-term integration of migrants is that both city and state encourage the differential inclusion of the mixed status population in practice.
Gender Equity in Education: Lessons from Zanzibar
This research study began on the premise that access to education for children, especially girls, in the developing world, is crucial, even though it is not yet a reality everywhere. Thus, it asks how it is possible that Zanzibar, a traditional, socialist society, has been able to achieve gender parity in primary education and what lessons can be learned from them? Through the literature on the region and topic of education in Zanzibar, as well as on women’s roles in development, this study tries to complete the first objective, to analyze the current policies and programs in place in Zanzibar to make this achievement possible. The analysis is done through the lens of SDG #4, focusing on universal educational targets and indicators to show where Zanzibar falls against a universal goal. This is followed by a discussion on the perspectives of women, based on interviews conducted with mothers in Zanzibar, to address the second objective, understanding how and why these women came to the realize that education is important for their children. The third and final objective of this research project is to analyze and understand the theoretical and practical implications based on the findings.
Empowerment and Reintegration: Survivors’ Perceptions of Human Trafficking Rehabilitation Programs in Nigeria
Rehabilitation services are often aimed at facilitating the recovery, empowerment, and reintegration of human trafficking survivors after their exploitative ordeal. However, only limited efforts have so far been directed at ascertaining the extent to which these rehabilitation programs fulfill their mandate. Using survivors’ perceptions and experiences, this thesis assesses the extent to which the Nigerian government and civil society‘s rehabilitation programs facilitate or undermine the empowerment and reintegration of female survivors of human trafficking. Drawing on qualitative data gathered over the course of 4 months in Nigeria, I show that the government and civil society‘s collaborative efforts at rehabilitation simultaneously aid and hinder the empowerment and reintegration of survivors in Nigeria due to their conceptualization of human trafficking and the wider socio-economic structure of the Nigerian state. I conclude by considering the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for human trafficking rehabilitation in developing countries.
Second-Chance Education: Defining Development, Growth, and Integration Through the Experiences of Grenadian Youth
During the Grenada Revolution (1979–1983), education was emphasized as a tool for national development catered to addressing colonial inheritances, and socioeconomic divisions. However, with the end of the Revolution and the subsequent American invasion, the nation’s education and development shifted towards a regional cooperative project outlined by CARICOM goals and policies. In particular, these efforts aimed to create an “Ideal Caribbean person/citizen/worker” so as to stimulate participation in the global marketplace. Considering the relationship between regional frameworks, national policies, and local practices, this research set out to examine how youth (16-24) in postcolonial and postrevolution Grenada interpret institutional targets through the role of “second-chance” education and training organisations. With fieldwork conducted in 2019 (May-August), focus groups, interviews, and participant observations were employed to learn more about ways in which youth navigate and respond to forms of socioeconomic and geographic insecurities faced in their education experiences and pursuits of development. Based on the findings, a disconnect remains between policy targets and the lived experiences of youth in development, especially as efforts for growth and integration remain a bureaucratic concern rather than a local affair. Although youth remain principal targets of education discourse, their voices are not always acknowledged in policy-making, as such the study highlighted some of the opportunities and challenges that youth directly encounter within “second-chance” learning, national education, and regional integration.
Keeping the State In: The Governance of China’s Financial Sector Reforms
China’s market-socialist banking model is the result of four decades of reform which transformed the financial sector into a system capable of providing effective financial intermediation in a competitive market environment while serving the real economy of the nation. Neoliberal analysts and policy makers have brought to attention various criticisms of China’s financial system most prominently the misallocation of capital on the part of state banks toward inefficient state-owned enterprises. Although some of the criticism is valid and China’s financial sector does require further reforms, there is, and should continue to be a crucial role for the state in China’s financial sector in order to preserve financial and economic stability at the country, and world levels, and to allow for the strategic national development of China’s economy as guided by state policy.
“The big question of the twenty-first century global economy is, what should be the role of the state?”
Joseph Stiglitz, 2010
In Pursuit of Social Justice: Women’s Forced Displacement and Legal Mobilization in Bogota
The past six decades of armed conflict in Colombia have left over 8 million forcibly displaced people (UNHCR, 2019). Four years after the historical signing of the 2016 Peace Accord, this number continues to grow by the hundred thousand each year (IDMC, 2019a). Among the displaced population, women have collectively mobilized around existing and emerging legal frameworks to seek justice for past harms. My research assesses the opportunities and limitations of the country’s transitional justice system in responding to the demands of women who have been forcefully displaced. To do so, I critically explore women leaders’ legal mobilization efforts through critical development and feminist lenses. Drawing on four months of fieldwork in Bogotá, my research suggests that transitional justice does not adequately respond to women’s demands, and instead, presents situations of heightened risk and insecurity. Alternatively, this study argues for the importance of legal mobilization in relation to transformative gender justice as it recognizes women’s agency, provides opportunities for autonomous decision-making, and strengthens collective spaces of mutual accompaniment in the face of an unresponsive state. My research contributes to the exploration of the links between justice, development, gender and displacement in post-accord contexts.
“The Effects of Canadian Multiculturalism Policy on Moroccan Migrant Women”
The framework of Ontario and Québec’s cultural diversity policies have their own unique measures to integrate and settle migrants. The province of Ontario has adopted the Canadian Multiculturalism Act as a means to settle migrants, while Québec created their individual multiculturalism policy, interculturalism. Although their policies vary in their selection, structure, and strategies, their goal of integrating racialized and minority migrants are comparatively the same. However, when compared simultaneously, how do their differing policies shape the experiences of migrants? This research paper aims to investigate the effects of Canadian diversity policy of the Province of Ontario and Québec on Moroccan migrant women. By drawing on fieldwork data collected in summer 2019, this paper will analyze how Muslim Moroccan migrant women fare in the cities of Toronto and Montréal through analyzing their experiences. This paper will identify the similarities and differences of Ontario and Québec’s cultural diversity policies has on Moroccan migrant women and which one better includes their sense of belonging and acceptance. The end goal of this study aims to accomplish goes as follows. First, this research suggests that the discrepancies in Ontario and Québec’s provincial multiculturalism policy have significant consequences on the progression of Moroccan migrant women and their belonging. Secondly, this paper will also identify the gaps and limitations of this topic, along with providing policy recommendations. Further, this study hopes to illuminate and portray the voices of Moroccan migrant women, whose stories are often forgotten in Canadian and migration literature.
Key words: Moroccan women, immigration policy, Canadian multiculturalism, Québec interculturalism, Effect, Integration, Gender, Belonging
Where are we now? An Exploration of Canada’s Anti-Human Trafficking Movement
This study examines Canada’s anti-human trafficking movement by considering anti-human trafficking professionals in the Greater Toronto Area. Through seven interviews with anti-trafficking professionals, local anti-trafficking events, and relevant literature, this study examines the how anti-trafficking professionals understand the nature of human trafficking and anti-trafficking responses and analyzes the challenges and opportunities these professionals face. This study will inform anti-trafficking critiques and activities, furthering the discussion toward a more informed critique of the anti-trafficking policy environment. Findings indicate that the anti-trafficking field is highly diverse and complex, comprised of actors representing diverging experiences and perceptions. This complexity can often result in conflict and hinder cooperative efforts. The author contends that if we embrace the complexities of the anti-trafficking field, recognizing the diversity of experiences, difference can be a strength that allows us to address the highly varied experiences of human trafficking across Canada.
Tahriib: Conceptualizations of Somali Youths' Journeys to Lands of ‘Opportunity’
Both existing literature and development initiatives do not adequately explore the motivations behind Somali youths’ migration out of Somalia. Traditionally development initiatives have been largely western-led and have in many cases further exacerbated humanitarian crises in the region. These initiatives have largely disregarded Somali locals’ agency and their views on the issues facing Somalis at home and abroad. Somalis have proven to be innovative in their organization around crises impacting the Somali community. However, the extent to which this mobilization can be effective is reliant on the support they receive, and barriers be lifted. Ultimately, I find that in order for Somali-led solutions to occur cooperation and understanding between locals and diaspora is necessary. Therefore, this research study aims to provide a platform for solutions for Somalis by Somalis. This study included all Somali participants from various backgrounds as fieldwork was conducted both in Nairobi, Kenya and London, England between May-August 2018. This Major Research Paper aims to explore the motivations of Somali migration, through analysis of observations and recommendations made by Somalis.
The Value of Social Capital: Exploring How Public Senior High Schools in the Central Region of Ghana Respond to Challenges and Opportunities in the Secondary Education Sector
Although low-to middle income countries have been encouraged to attain the international benchmark of 15–20% public budget allocation to education, Ghana’s education budget to GDP has hovered between 4% and 10% over the last decade. As a result, all public secondary schools are constantly compelled to negotiate for their fair share of governmental support to secure infrastructure and teaching and learning materials. However, in this context of constrained resources certain schools seem to be thriving better than most of their counterparts. Drawing on primary research findings, this study problematizes the structural inequalities and competition as a direct consequence of not only the fiscally constrained public sector, but also as the result of deep-seated historical events and political decisions that form part of colonial legacies in Ghana. It draws on the concept of social capital to highlight the crucial role of private networks and relationships (social capital) in mitigating these challenges.
Global China or South-South Neighbour? A Case Study of China's Health and Humanitarian Aid to Nepal
"As the world’s second-largest economy, China’s influence can be increasingly seen in fields such as trade, international development, and global health. In assessing China’s foreign aid, academics remain divided on whether China’s aid truly reflects the South-South principles of cooperation. However, much of the past focus has been placed on areas of infrastructure, neglecting sectors such as health. In addition, the few case studies of China’s health aid have been limited to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, bypassing China’s closer neighbours. By using the case study of health and humanitarian aid to Nepal, this study seeks to fill in the literature gap and shed greater light on China’s relationship with health aid within the South Asian regional context. In carrying out this study, the researcher conducted fieldwork in Nepal from April to August 2018, interviewing participants such as doctors, project administrators, and civil society members in a semi-structured manner. This study’s findings suggest that, for the most part, China’s health and humanitarian aid seem to reflect the South-South principles of non-interference, mutual benefits, and distinction from the West based on the perceptions of participants. However, challenges with the implementation of the aid can be found in bureaucratic programming, language and cultural barriers, and geographic obstacles. Simultaneously, this study suggests that educational medical scholarships serve as an opportunity as a more impactful form of health aid from China—both in terms of influence in Nepal’s domestic health sector and the goals of China to further its relationship with neighbouring countries. As a result, this study identifies several key areas for future research as China’s influence as a neighbour continues to grow with initiatives such as the Belt and Road Initiative."
An Arrival of Possibilities: Refugees Access to Berlin’s Higher Education Sector
The need for improved access to education is increasingly being characterized as the fourth pillar of humanitarianism, specifically within many refugee contexts following shelter, food, and water. However, access to higher education is an underrepresented issue that is not exclusive to refugee-camp contexts, but also present within the processes of resettlement in receiving countries. In 2015, Germany experienced an unprecedented number of asylum seekers, an estimated 890,000, and with these arrivals a diverse set of responses around how to facilitate refugees’ participation in higher education. This research draws on the fieldwork data collected in Berlin during the summer of 2018, three years after the events of 2015. It investigates the extent to which program providers in Berlin have been able to integrate refugees into the higher education landscape. By highlighting how service providers engage and perceive the issues behind higher education access, this research highlights the specifics of what could be learned from the German context.
The Validation of Traditional Healer and Healthcare in South Africa
As post-colonial and post-development theories argue, the knowledge produced in the Global South is often undervalued by a Eurocentric approach. International/national development in health, too often perceives a biomedical system is the only legitimate tool of delivering health services to the disadvantaged. The practice of traditional health practitioners of South Africa, such as sangomas and inyangas, was not able to escape this trend. Though the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 gave legal status to traditional healers, the dominance of the western scientific approach resulted in the creation of a dysfunctional regulation. Without proper regulation, trust-worthy traditional healers and fraudulent ones cannot be separated. Inability to regulate the practice of traditional healers with a western scientific approach limits the ability of traditional healers to practice. Thus, this research argues that further supports and investments on the proposals of standardization through the traditional healers’ perspectives from the diversity of knowledgeable traditional healers is urgent. This research employed a qualitative research approach with mixed-methods. It utilizes a USAID TB programme as a case study to demonstrate the research question of how traditional healers have been integrated into the mainstream healthcare initiatives and what the implications are to them. Utilizing a triangulation approach and multiple perspectives in data analysis, this research found that the dominance of the western scientific approach resulted in the creation of the following: the limited ability of traditional healing to practice; the division of traditional healers between educated traditional healers and non-educated traditional healers; and the breaking of traditional unity.
Keywords: Traditional Health Practitioners, sangomas, inyangas, post-colonial, post-development
South-South Migration: The Journeys of Haitian Migrant Women in the Dominican Republic
South-South migration (SSM) is an important migratory phenomenon. An example of this is the migration between Haiti and the Dominican Republic with an increasing number of women participating. In this context, the work of civil society organizations (CSOs) is described in the literature as having a positive impact for human development and human rights. Using a capability-based empowerment framework, this study considers the impact of CSOs’ work with Haitian migrant women and their communities in the Dominican Republic in terms of expansion of capabilities and empowerment as social change. I argue that the impact of CSOs’ work on human development needs to be understood within the boundaries of their approaches to addressing inequalities. Based on interviews with various CSOs, the findings show that certain human capabilities are addressed and that different levels of empowerment are considered through the work of CSOs with migrants.
Stories of Adaptation: Community Based Groups on South Tarawa in Kiribati
The projected global sea-level rise due to the effects of climate change over the next century, combined with the low-lying nature of the Pacific island country Kiribati, has created a global fascination that the nation may disappear, displacing the I-Kiribati people. Discussion of the adaptation approaches that will need to be taken by actors, from the local to international level, in response to the impacts of climate change have taken centre stage in planning for Kiribati’s future. Therefore, an examination of community-based groups (CBGs), voluntary organizations of community members created to address specific needs of communities, adaptation priorities and how they are being consulted on adaptation, is valuable in assessing the overall inclusiveness and leadership of the I-Kiribati in adaptation being executed South Tarawa, Kiribati. Through a series of discussions with CBGs, and with civil society actors working in South Tarawa, this research will seek to investigate how CBGs are creating adaptation projects and how they are responding directly to their community needs. It will contribute to an understanding of the roles that CBG consultation and partnership play in international adaptation objectives. This analysis of the fieldwork process will take a critical look at the role of global imagining that centres around Kiribati as a 'doomed' place as creating a pre-determined fate in the global mindset, and how this is effectively undermining the historical adaptation capabilities and existing knowledge among I-Kiribati communities to be leaders in adaptation priorities and efforts.
Begging for Inclusion: EU Roma Integration Policies in the Romanian Education System
Nearly two decades of various international and national social inclusion policies, as well as other initiatives implemented by the Romanian government, have not sufficed to improve the conditions for the Romanian Roma community in a significant way. With the largest Roma population situated in Romania, Romanian Roma have been the target of the European Union’s social inclusion initiatives, particularly within the education sector. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the ongoing Roma inclusion policies, the National Strategies for Roma Inclusion 2012-2020 (NRIS), within the Romanian education system. After multiple semi-structured interviews with Romanian Roma and non-Roma students, teachers, government officials, and Roma NGOs, the paper suggests that despite efforts, the National Strategies for Roma Inclusion 2012-2020 continues to have minimal success within the Romanian education system. My research sheds light on the implementation of Roma inclusion policies as well as highlights the same challenges and therefore the unchanged results over the years regardless of previous recommendations in the literature. Accounting for various perspectives, it is argued that discrimination within the Romanian education system continues with various degrees of subtlety. Drawing on interviews with stakeholders of the National Strategies for Roma Inclusion 2012-2020, there is a need for non-Roma citizens to take responsibility for how their prejudice creates educational barriers for Roma students and minimize it. A cohesive two-way approach, between both Roma and non-Roma citizens, is necessary in order to efficiently implement Roma inclusion policies.
Development Diaspora: The Identity and Agency of Somali Development Workers in Post-Conflict Settings
Within the development sector, policy makers, academics and practitioners in the field have begun to highlight the importance of the diaspora as development actors oriented towards the improvement of their homelands. The Somali diaspora in particular have been subject to increased interest within diaspora studies, and among academics and development practitioners. Due to this recent trend, there have been several debates among scholars with regards to the nature of diasporic engagement and their roles in post-conflict settings. While disagreement exists among scholars as to the nature of diasporic engagement, there has been little discussion about how diaspora members play a distinct and unique role in post-conflict development and humanitarianism. Given the current debates and discourses surrounding this topic, this paper examines the nature of diasporic engagement for Somali development workers in Somalia, and the subjective roles they occupy in post-conflict settings. This paper suggests that current literature on diasporic engagement would benefit from understandings that explore the complex, diverse and fragmented realities faced by diaspora members engaged in development.
Close to Peace but Far from Home: Forced Displacement and Land Restitution in Post-Accord Colombia
My research looks at the opportunities and challenges of the Colombian transitional justice process to produce long-overdue transformations of the countryside. To do so, I critically examine the land restitution framework established by Law 1448 using the transformative justice analytical lens in order to expose enduring patterns of violence that are embedded in, or influenced by, the current transitional justice process. Based on four months of fieldwork in Bogota and various rural areas of Colombia in the summer of 2018, my research makes important contributions to the literature on transitional justice, peacebuilding, and development in highly unequal transitioning societies. I first suggest that the discrepancies between victims’ expectations of the transitional justice process and the state’s approach, which are most visible when considering reparations for collective non-material forms of harms, have significant implication for victims’ recovery. Secondly, my research challenges the assumption that transitional justice and development are complementary concepts that reinforce each other. Alternatively, I bring attention to instances in which the transitional justice process was conditioned by state’s development priorities that are in direct conflict with some of the fundamental elements of Law 1448. Finally, I suggest that one way to address the shortcomings of transitional justice practice is for researchers to apply research methods that put victims at the center of the inquiry and allow for the integration of local knowledge in academic research.
Turkey’s Hierarchy of Refugees: A Comparative Study of the Educational Experiences of Afghan and Syrian Child Refugees
Despite the internationally recognized importance of education, refugees’ access to education remains limited and uneven across settings of displacement and for different groups of refugees. There has been an increased scholarly focus on education for Syrian refugees in Turkey; however, the literature does not fully acknowledge the heterogeneity within the refugee population in Turkey. The objective of this research is to elucidate the similarities and differences found in the education-related experiences of Afghan and Syrian child refugees in Turkey, as described from multiple perspectives. The qualitative research in this research paper draws on fieldwork data collected in Turkey between June and September 2018. The findings indicate that the contradictory Turkish refugee policies and the unequal service delivery of civil society often disregard the needs of Afghan refugees, resulting in serious consequences. It is argued that education can improve the overall well-being of refugee children in addition to providing them with the tools needed for long-term human development.
Surviving in a State of Limbo: An Empirical Analysis of the Livelihood Survival Strategies adopted by Refugees in Malaysia
This study examines how refugees in Malaysia are able to secure their livelihoods and wellbeing within a context of institutional void in Malaysia due to the lack of any coherent government framework to address the refugee crisis in the country. Refugees residing within the Kuala Lumpur area participated in this comprehensive case study that explores the various challenges and opportunities these refugees face in attempting to secure their livelihoods. This study uses a mixed-methods approach to gathering data, which was collected during my three-month fieldwork in Malaysia. The findings from this study suggest that refugees in a context of institutional void face three key challenges in securing their livelihoods: 1) access to financial institutions & labour markets 2) access to public services 3) ensuring safety. In addition, this Major Research Paper highlights the opportunities that arise from a context of institutional void, which includes the ability for refugees to build stronger informal and formal networks, and the growth of refugee-run social enterprises, as a means to have better access to services, generate income and provide refugees employment. The theoretical implications of this study are that refugees are increasingly relying on social capital development through inter-community bonds, intra-community bonds and technology in order to secure their livelihoods. Furthermore, this study exposes the practical limitations of non-state actors efforts to fill the governance gaps within the context of institutional void. This Paper concludes by considering the theoretical and policy implications of findings for refugee survival strategies in context of institutional void.
Understanding Participation and Empowerment: A Qualitative Study on Rural Women’s Involvement in Agriculture Production and Marketing in Bangladesh
Agriculture is one of the main important sectors in Bangladeshi economy. Rural women are half of the population that is actively involved in agriculture. However, rural Bangladeshi culture de facto discourages men to involve in household works, the practice leave women overburdened in case they needed to involve in additional works, as mentioned by many previous studies. Keeping this in mind, my research objective has been to explore the lived experiences of rural women who are actively engaged in agriculture in Bangladesh. I have employed a number of participatory qualitative methods to collect primary data and insights from fields. The analytical framework employed both political economy and capabilities approach, to understand how much capability enhancing rural women’s participation in agriculture is, and how social, cultural, economic, and political systems together influence in participation process. My hope is that this research paper will provide a more nuanced understanding on “participation” and “empowerment” in relation to agriculture in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Rural Bangladesh, agriculture participation, empowerment, capabilities, political economy
Living on the Margins & Picking up the Pieces: NGO Response to the Greek Economic Crisis, Austerity Measures & Social Assistance
The current research emphasizes the impact of the economic crisis in Greece to state welfare, a crisis that coincides with the rapid growth in the number of refugees entering the country. The goal of my work is to assess how civil society actors, specifically NGOs, address the gaps in welfare created by both decreasing fiscal capacity and growing demand. Findings suggest civil society increased its role after the economic and refugee crisis, providing emergency relief, to all people regardless of citizenship. Currently, NGOs are focusing increasingly on long term, developmental approaches to programs. Challenges to NGO regarding program facilitation included lack of volunteers and training, funding, public perception of NGOs, and unemployment, while strengthens included program quality, partnership and expansion of NGOs facilities. Notwithstanding their limitations, NGOs maintain a crucial role in the assistance of vulnerable individuals, providing access to safeguards and coping via empowerment and integration. NGOs of all levels have an important and new role in service delivery, partnership and advocacy; mobilizing individuals, impacting policy and have the potential to pressure the government towards positive change.
Inuit Youth Perceptions and Experiences with Learning their Indigenous Language: The Future of Inuktitut
This paper offers a critical analysis of the experiences and perceptions of Inuit youth with learning Inuktitut in the region of Nunavik and illuminates the regional school board’s response to a community desire for balance in language learning. Within the community of Kuujjuaq, community members and stakeholders are concerned with preserving and fortifying the Inuktitut language, as a mode of preserving and fortifying Inuit culture. At the same time, mainstream languages like English and French are gaining increased influence through the influx of a non-Inuit population, with the result that these languages infiltrate various aspects of life in the community, including education, employment, and social spheres. Findings and discussion outlined in this document offer valuable recommendations for Kativik Ilisarniliriniq that can be applied to curriculum adaptation and development in accordance with the Strategic Plan 2016-2023, which seeks to strengthen Inuit values, language and culture, as well as recommendations for adjustments to existing language policies.
Keywords: Inuktitut, Nunavik, language, education, youth, Inuit
Including the Excluded: Disability, Accessibility, and Development in Ghana, West Africa
Traditional developmental responses to disability have primarily dealt with the provision of charitable goods. As a result, governments in the global North and South remain disengaged from more nuanced issues of disability. For many countries, the inequities that plague citizens with impairment remain at the periphery of the development agenda. This study contributes to the discussion on disability-inclusive development by providing an empirical case study on the mobility experiences of persons with physical impairment. Ghana’s current transportation system puts people with impairment at a disadvantage in achieving their desired wellbeing. The dominant transport options disrupt the agency, mobilization, and participation of impaired peoples. The narrated experiences with public transport in Ghana suggests a wider system of exclusion in which physical, social, and economic issues intersect.
The Self-Reliance Strategy and the Politics of Settlements: A Case Study of Kyaka II Settlement in Kyegegwa District Western Uganda
Uganda is often portrayed as the epitome of progressive refugee laws in Africa, and the country’s self-reliance strategy (SRS) as a beacon for refugee development. Despite this, questions on whether SRS addresses refugee development and self-sustenance remain. This MRP explores Uganda’s SRS and argues that with the current implementation framework, the SRS is incapable of improving the livelihoods of protracted refugeeism. This paper builds on contemporary literature to counter the notion of self-reliance as a solution to refugee economic empowerment by answering the question: to what extent has the Self-Reliance Strategy contributed to the economic empowerment of refugees in Uganda? This paper faults the government of Uganda (GoU) and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) for premising SRS on food sustainability at the expense of other core functionings such as health, mobility and education. Through the lens of the capabilities approach, this research examines refugee perceptions of the SRS, its effectiveness in refugee hosting communities, and understanding the political and economic climate under which SRS is implemented. The study also explores the implications of the relationship between SRS and refugee empowerment. It is argued that UNHCR has failed to provide alternatives to declining relief aid neither has it emphasized the rights and freedoms of refugees that are continuously circumvented by host states under the pretext of national security. The education and health sectors remain inadequately funded just as there has been no attempt by the UNHCR and the GoU to address restrictions on refugee mobility, which is identified as a detriment to self-reliance initiatives. The findings emphasize mobility, education, economic empowerment, nutrition and health that are central to refugee livelihoods.
Kurdish Group Dance as Resistance in Turkey
In this paper, I argue the practice of Kurdish group dance in Turkey represents a negotiated but tangible means of resisting the domination of Kurdish cultural identity, the Kurdish body, and the sociocultural autonomy of Kurdish space. I begin with a discussion of the literature surrounding the notion of culture as resistance, highlighting some of the major points of debate and contention. Drawing from interviews with Kurds from Turkey and fieldwork at various sites in Turkey, I go on to that argue Kurdish govend functions as a form of negotiated resistance in the following ways; 1) as a space for cultivating a collective memory of genocide as well as a space for channeling experiences of domination into an act of defiance and empowerment, and 2) as an assembly of bodies which poses a physical and symbolic challenge to the Turkish state’s attempts to subjugate Kurdish space and the Kurdish body.
More than a Game? Exploring Sport’s Role in Refugee and Asylum-Seeker Settlement in Glasgow, Scotland
Up until recently, refugees and asylum-seekers, and even more so, the relationship between sport and settlement, has generally been written out of discussions surrounding sport for development (SFD). This study seeks to fill some of this lacuna through a critical analysis of a grassroots, community football club for male refugees and asylum-seekers - United Glasgow FC (UGFC). Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Glasgow, Scotland from May –August 2017, this thesis aims to explore the notion that sport can facilitate refugee and asylum-seeker well-being throughout the settlement process. Through a qualitative analysis of the experiences of both volunteers and players involved with the club, this research suggest that sport can hold great potential for the facilitation of refugees and asylum-seeker well-being; however, the extent to which well-being is facilitated relies heavily on the conditions of the sport program itself and the local context.
‘Koyoka Mingóngó’ (Listen/Understand Voices): Exploring Violence and Adolescent Girls in Street Situations in Kinshasa, DR Congo
This is an exploratory study of adolescent girls in street situations in the ‘post’-colonial city-province of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the culmination of five months of fieldwork conducted in Kinshasa from May to September 2017. This research explores the lived experiences of Congolese adolescent girls in street situations and is interested in their voices and perspectives regarding violence they encounter throughout their girlhoods, as well as, their constructions of meaningful justice. Utilizing an interdisciplinary conceptual framework rooted in de/anti-colonial Radical Black African feminist and Black Girlhoods thought, this study confirms adolescent girls experience multiple forms of violence in addition to, sexual violence, are policed under the auspices of religion, have complicated relationships with the notion of justice, and, some are victims of forced sterilization/contraception. In conclusion, there is a lot of work in development and legal spaces that must be conducted to liberate girls in street situations.
Shifting Conventions and Creating Opportunities: Understanding Women’s Empowerment through Community – Based Tourism in Rural South Africa
Tourism is often pursued as a development strategy in areas of the Global South, particularly in areas where few other industries exist. However, this industry has a checkered history of exploiting workers, damaging local economies, and exacerbating gender inequality. In response, community-based tourism emerged as an alternative method for developing tourism structures that benefit local communities. In a rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, a small group of isolated Xhosa villages, Mankosi, has engaged with community-based tourism over the last fifteen years. By drawing on data collected in Mankosi over the summer of 2018, this research seeks to interpret the impact of community-based tourism in the lives of local women. A feminist interpretation of power structures was used to understand their experiences. While the positive impacts of community-based tourism are limited by its scope, women in Mankosi have used community-based tourism to challenge traditional gender roles and create new opportunities within their community. The research explores what mechanisms have led to the empowerment of women in Mankosi and what obstacles continue to impede their empowerment.
Travel Abroad Programs and the Capacity to Aspire: Exploring Northern Indigenous Youth Empowerment Through Travel
Since the 1950s, youth volunteer abroad programs (YVA) have been a growing phenomenon that has allowed young people from Western societies to engage with cultures in the developing world. While acknowledging the disempowering colonial-structures within the education systems of Canada’s Arctic regions, this study seeks to understand how YVA programs may serve as a tool of empowerment by which Northern Indigenous young people are given opportunities to experiences and observe potential possibilities and alternatives to their future. This case study examines the before and after experiences of five Indigenous youth from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories that took part in an eight-week volunteer program in Costa Rica in the summer of 2017. It is argued that such programs provide Northern Indigenous students with a means to expand their personal capacities to aspire towards alternative futures that were once unknown to them.
Islamophobia and Human Development in the Canadian Context
The September 11th, 2001 attacks (9/11) in the United States sent shock waves around the world creating political, philosophical, and cultural change in their wake. The attacks and the subsequent ‘War on Terror’ created a different world than was known before 9/11 with significant changes in Western countries’ domestic and foreign policy along with defence and security policies. Netting few, if any, prosecutions for terrorist acts, the profiling of Muslims by the Canadian government and security agencies, has greatly demonized the Muslim community and contributed to Islamophobia. The aim of this study is to critically analyse the experiences of Canadian Muslims post 9/11. Specific emphasis is on the relationship between post 9/11 Islamophobia and the human development of Canadian Muslims. The objective of this research project was to identify how Islamophobia affects the human development of Canadian Muslims on a daily basis. It is argued that the current socio-political environment in Canada is not one that is enhancing or expanding the development of Canadian Muslims; rather, it is blocking the development of Canadian Muslims.
Health, History, Identity: Understanding Resistance To The Muskrat Falls Project Through Local Perceptions And Experiences In Central Labrador
An Indigenous–led movement had formed to resist the development of a hydroelectric dam at Muskrat Falls in Central Labrador, Canada. Land protectors have stated that ecological and socioeconomic changes from the project will negatively affect the environment and peoples in downstream communities. This research sought to better understand the ways in which peoples in Central Labrador, including land protectors involved in the resistance and members of the wider community, perceived and experienced the alleged effects of the project; how their understanding of these effects is related to community resistance or support for the project; and how they have come to conceptualize what the project means for the wellbeing of the communities downstream. Semi-structured interviews and participatory observation from 5 months of fieldwork in the regional community of Upper Lake Melville in central Labrador inform this work. Analyses revealed that community members perceived Muskrat Falls through a lens of historical injustice embedded in settler colonialism, and have experienced Muskrat Falls as a continuation of a legacy of external imposition and/or colonial violence in the region. Additionally, community members perceived that the Muskrat Falls project has and will affect the health and wellbeing of the community on individual and collective levels, in both direct and indirect ways, related to social and economic impact, fear and stress related to environmental risks, and environmental change and loss of ‘ways of life ‘in the region, particularly for Indigenous peoples.
Enhancing Resettlement? Exploring Brazil’s Private Refugee Sponsorship Plans
In response to the global refugee crisis, some countries are looking at creative solutions for receiving more refugees. Operating alongside state-led resettlement, private refugee sponsorship can be a means to enhance refugee resettlement and improve the integration of resettled refugees. Brazil has taken steps to adopt aspects of the Canadian Private Sponsorship of Refugees (PSR) Program. This research focuses on the early program design stage in Brazil with the goal of assessing the nature of the emerging public-private refugee sponsorship initiative. It explores how the “private” in private sponsorship is understood in the Brazilian context, and what social, economic and related policy infrastructures are required for implementing a private refugee sponsorship program, some of which are not yet in place. It concludes by questioning whether the emerging public-private refugee sponsorship program will enhance refugee resettlement in Brazil or merely serve as another example of the privatization of a state responsibility.
Gender and Indigeneity in the City: Indigenous Women’s Experiences with Violence in Toronto
This study explores the multiple violences facing Indigenous women in the city of Toronto, through a critical examination of the relationship between urbanity, Indigeneity, gender, and violence. A theoretical framework of settler colonialism and Indigenous feminism is used, reflecting on 7 semi-structured interviews with Indigenous women at various urban Indigenous organizations, completed in the summer of 2017. The research suggests that urbanity be analysed as an additional layer when considering Indigenous women’s experiences with violence, with Indigenous feminism emphasizing the specific inequalities which Indigenous women face within a gendered settler colonial framework of elimination. The role of the Toronto Indigenous community in responding to gendered colonial violence is also explored. In the city, Indigeneity and gender intersect in a context of structural and personal colonial violences and heightened vulnerability; in responding to these violences, the urban Indigenous community acts in resistance to settler colonial logic, through processes of reclaiming identity, cultures, and lands, thus highlighting the significance of the urban Indigenous experience.
Livelihood Strategies of Displaced Independent Eritrean Youths In Cairo: Examining Agency And Vulnerability
Eritrea is one of the largest refugee producing countries, as many exit to escape arduous National Service (Amnesty International 2015). Egypt is an important transit country for Eritreans, with the majority settling in Cairo. Based on fieldwork with displaced independent Eritrean youths in Cairo from May-August 2017, this thesis applies the livelihoods framework to independent displaced youths to study their agentic capabilities, amidst vulnerability. They are primarily able to negotiate their livelihoods through their housemates, often those they meet ‘en route’. Furthermore, their housemates are frequently their only source of support, regardless of their ability to provide adequate support. Despite their experiences of vulnerability, mainly determined by their security context, youths enact their agency in managing social, institutional, and financial resources. Gender was the predominant marker of identity that influenced their livelihood strategies. This thesis critically examines the key livelihoods issues facing displaced youths and makes practical and theoretical recommendations.
Farmers’ Perception and Experience: Effects of ICT On Smallholder Farmers’ Livelihoods
The role of communication in socio-economic development has long been established. With the advancement in communication technologies in the developing world, Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) that includes cell-phones and the Internet, have made access to livelihoods related information and communication easier than ever before. This research explores the relationship between digital ICTs and livelihood dimensions among the rural poor individuals of Bangladesh. The study was conducted with a mixed method approach, with three focus group discussions (FGD) and 30 quantitative data samples, with the theoretical lens of modernization, rational choice, CA and livelihoods theory. It was found that ICT contributed as an enabler of capabilities for these resource and information poor population. It does so by allowing the rural poor to exercise their agency to attain different livelihoods assets. This study found ICT to be closely associated with social, human, physical and financial capital gain, which further helps the rural households to manage vulnerable situations such as, natural disasters, health and farm related emergencies on real-time basis. It also makes communication among friends, family and work acquittance easier as they do not need to travel long distances to seek information, resulting in saving travel and transaction costs.
The Umuyabaga (Adolescent) Burundian Refugees Living In The Refugee Camps In Kigoma Region Tanzania
This paper presents a case study on young Burundians who fled their country in 2015, exploring the social issues that arise as a result of transnational migration to Tanzania. It gives a historical account of how this refugee situation developed in that region and discusses how the age categorization of these refugees by Tanzanian government and global humanitarian refugee regime impact their access to humanitarian aid. Over the past four decades, there have been changes in the Tanzanian government policy with regards to how humanitarian assistance is administered to Burundian refugees. This paper explores how these policy changes affect the social development and independence of young people in camp situations. The research consists of field observation and interviews with 26 Burundian refugees from three refugee camps in Tanzania, as well as staff from international organizations.
Spirit and Body, Heart and Soul: Exploring Student Narratives through Higher Education in Exile (Thesis)
Refugee higher education, as a subset of the larger education in emergencies field, has been rapidly growing since the 2000s. However, a deeper exploration of student experiences is needed to critically understand the potentially transformative aspects of higher education. Responding to this gap, this research draws on fieldwork data collected in Amman, Jordan in summer 2016. It aims to interrogate how higher education can open avenues for alternative narratives for refugee students. The uptake of higher education by refugees challenges discursively limiting representations by giving students an avenue through which they can connect to their own pasts and futures, while also transforming their present lived experiences. A feminist lens is used to draw attention to the racialized and gendered differences among students’ experiences. By re-centering discussions of refugee higher education around students themselves, this research is intended to help better align development praxis to flow from this crucial starting point.
Gender Mainstreaming and It’s Potential for Women’s Empowerment: A Case Study of Addis Ababa University
International development buzzword “gender-mainstreaming” calls for a deeper examination into the nature of policymaking and calls into question its potential for achieving women’s empowerment. This study demonstrates the complexities in achieving empowerment by addressing the everyday experiences of students and faculty. The main argument of this MRP is that gender relations permeate into the life of the university: through behaviours, opportunities provided and perceived performance. Policies are not immune to the nature and dynamics of socially constructed gender relations. Furthermore, the findings point to the lack of efficiency in ‘technical’ fixes that time and time again failed in the past. Therefore, gender mainstreaming policies alone, cannot be said to promote gender inequality. Rather increased participation, collaboration and consultation with both women and men are key ingredients towards favourable outcomes. Put together, gender mainstreaming can be a useful tool for gender and development scholars, practitioners and experts. Addis Ababa University has made great strides towards bringing awareness for the need of gender equality and empowerment in order to increase the representation of women in higher education. However, more needs to be done to tackle everyday nuances that are not apparent through policy reform.
Non-Profit Organizations and Rights-Based Approach to People with Disabilities: A Case Study of CRP in Bangladesh
This research analyzes the idea of serving people with disabilities and interventions to include them in mainstream society. By providing a review of existing literature related to disability services, this research identifies the limitations of the traditional approaches including medical, charitable, and social services that aim to address the concerns of people with disabilities. It discusses the rights-based approach, a new way of serving people with disabilities, which is an emerging approach examined in the disability literature, the focus of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) of the United Nations (UN) and of major interest within the disseminated practice of different organizations. The study examines how the rights-based approach impacts the lives of people with disabilities and which approach is practiced by Non-Profit Organizations (NPO’s) through a case study approach. For the purpose of proper understanding of the rights-based approach, this research analyzes the activities of the Centre for Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed (CRP) in Bangladesh which supports people with disabilities. To address these issues, it investigates, through a qualitative method, how the activities of the CRP conform to the needs of people with disabilities to ensure rights mentioned by the CRPD. Based on the findings of this case study, this research argues that NPOs could combine the traditional approaches with rights-based service.
Re-Imagining NGOs: Addressing local understanding of NGOs in their immediate context—A case study from Rural Tanzania
While the literature on NGOs has often attempted to characterize them by defining and typologizing them through diverse set of criteria, it has been less often that local understandings of NGOs have been brought about or attempted to be included into these typological frameworks and characterizations. This has resulted in a gap pertaining to the voices of locals, particularly in rural settings, and a strong urban bias. This research shortens this gap by presenting through a case-study based in rural Tanzania, another way in which NGOs are understood. Asking how such understandings reflect and are influenced by their immediate context, this study accounts for the context being studied by combining the inclusion of diverse local voices, fieldwork observations, and the textual and discursive analysis of documents, to render a broad and complex ‘picture’ of the landscape that NGOs inhabit.
Keywords: NGOs, context, Africa, contextualization, local, understanding, Tanzania, rural
The Role of Industry in the Mercury Poisoning of Asubpeeschoseewagang (Grassy Narrows) And Wabaseemong First Nations
This major Research Paper (MRP) analyzes the ways in which different capitalist fractions in Colombia advocated for certain kinds of state intervention in the realm of economic policy and the industrial strategy. The MRP examines how the relationship between changes in structural conditions such as trade liberalization and international competition and the state’s response in the form of a policy document, is itself mediated by the agency of the capitalist class and its fractions, an agency expressed in certain organizational forms. The study of the different capitalist interests and their strategies to influence the policy process revealed that a hegemonic fraction was more influential, not only due to its economic power but also due to its ability to set the policy agenda, appear legitimate to other fractions and successfully present their own fractional interests as compatible with broader national interests. Understanding the agency of capitalists in this policy process illustrates how development policies are not just technical but highly political negotiations.
The Role of Industry in the Mercury Poisoning of Asubpeeschoseewagang (Grassy Narrows) And Wabaseemong First Nations
This paper explores the role of the pulp and paper industry in perpetrating egregious and prolonged harm against the people of Asubpeeschoseewagong (Grassy Narrows) and Wabaseemoong First Nations through contamination of the Wabigoon river system with methylmercury. Drawing upon archival materials, secondary data analysis, and discourse analysis, this paper explores the ways in which Canada's provincial and federal government bodies have actively sheltered and enabled the actions of industry bodies and representatives at both individual and structural levels. The opacity of industry's internal functions, the highly bureaucratic and industry-friendly nature of Canada's legal system, in which responsibility for industrial harm often rests upon no single institutional body, and the influence of colonialist narratives of modernization and industrialization, have been key factors in the severity and duration of the mercury disaster. The poisoning can be contextualized within the broader structure of Canada's extraction-based economy, which is fundamentally conducive to and dependent upon the dispossession of indigenous peoples. The nexus of state and industry interests which have converged in this case to both cause and prolong industrial harm, has been the accumulation of capital through resource extraction, at the expense of dispossessing and causing fatal levels of harm to indigenous peoples.
“If You Can’t, We Can!’: Labour As Commons, The Solidarity Economy And Transformative Development On The Margins—A Case Study On The Worker–Recuperated Company, Vio.Me., In Thessaloniki, Greece
This Master’s Thesis analyzes the worker occupation and takeover of the Vio.Me factory in Thessaloniki, Greece in a context of widespread business closures brought on by the economic crisis. The recuperation of the Vio.Me factory set in motion a deeply transformative process, as workers converted their bankrupted firm into a socially-oriented workers’ cooperative. In this paper, I explore the ways in which the worker recuperation has transformed the abandoned factory into a common space for building and sustaining community, and the labour activity of workers into a process of commoning. I argue that while the Vio.Me takeover initially emerged as a defensive reaction against unemployment and poverty, it has become an offensive class-based struggle against power and representation in the workplace and beyond in pursuit of autonomy and the commons. I aim to demonstrate how the commons and commoning constitute a vehicle for transformative community and human development ‘from below’.
Key words: Vio.Me, worker-recuperated company, autonomy, workers’ control, the commons and commoning, solidarity economy, community and human development, Greece
Understanding Participation in Policy–Making: A case study of Sindh's formulation of Early Childhood Care and Education Policy
This MRP aims to examine the process of Sindh ECCE policy-making in Pakistan. It explores issues of access and deliberation that revolve around representation and power dynamics. Using data collected from semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and secondary documents, this research aims to understand different perspectives of stakeholders in the policy-making process. It finds that the process, although a step in the right direction, didn’t produce the expected outcomes due primarily to the selection criteria of the participants.
Influences of High-Risk Resistance in Thailand: A Study of Bangkok Student Activism
This major research paper explores the dynamics of the mobilization of Bangkok student activists to the authoritarian regime of the National Council for Peace and Order in Thailand. The study is based on qualitative data collected through a four-month research period conducted in Thailand over the summer of 2016. It poses two research questions, which are: 1) Why do Bangkok students mobilize against the NCPO regime? 2) How are the students’ mobilization strategies shaped by political opportunities? This paper found that the movement used a democratic and decentralized structure to coordinate the deployment of resource mobilization and repertoires of non-violent action to challenge the NCPO from exercising authoritarian actions that create further inequality in society. This paper argues that to see the relationships that explain the dynamics of Bangkok student activism against the NCPO, it is crucial to understand both why the students mobilize and how the movement operates.
Exploring Gender Mainstreaming in Primary Education: A Cambodian Context (Thesis)
Gender and education has become a popular component to mainstream development discourse over the past decade. In such a short span of time, the focus, aims, implementation, and monitoring processes have shifted quickly. Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Cambodia from May-August 2016, this thesis provides an exploration of gender mainstreaming in the context of primary education. The aim of the research was to understand, through stakeholder perception, to what extent does Cambodian primary education policy address gender issues? Through qualitative research, utilizing observation and interviews of policy stakeholders, it examines themes of gender training, educational access, social attitudes, and favourable education conditions. In total, 40 participants shared their information to contribute to key findings. Guided by gender & feminist theory, this thesis suggests we are not ‘beyond parity’ in the gender mainstreaming debate, and that gender mainstreaming can have the tendency to call for immense social change from small institutions. This thesis also suggests a shift of focus towards adults, and the gendered repercussions that take place when their influence on youth is ignored. Influential topics of maternal health, domestic violence, involvement of men/boys, and lack of resources will be discussed.
The research was an attempt to further understand the sometimes broad and vague definitions of gender mainstreaming, on a practical level, in an uncommonly explored context. By critically examining the nature and dynamics of the policy, I have developed considerations for theoretical and practical implementations for gender, education, and development.
Exploring Host Community and Partner NGO Assessments of International Volunteer Programs in Nicaragua
This study contributes to a newly emerging discussion in the literature on host community perceptions by providing an empirical case study conducted with a host community in rural Nicaragua, Santa Catarina, about the perceived developmental impacts of international volunteer programs. I found 1) people in the host community assessed the programs positively for the material and social benefits 2) the partnership with the partner NGOs to be perceived positively, and 3) people in Santa Catarina to be active agents in their own development through the women’s agricultural cooperative and building strong levels of social capital. My study adds to the literature additional findings on the contribution of the programs to foster community identity, social bonding and place making. Volunteer programs vary significantly, making it difficult to generalize about their impact. To critically assess volunteer programs they must be contextualized, understanding the character of the host community and partner NGOs.
“Developing Ourselves”: An Examination of Women Coffee Producer Empowerment and its Facilitation in Rwanda
This study centres on exploring whether and how the relations between women coffee producers and specialty coffee washing station owners in Rwanda facilitate the empowerment of these women. Over the course of three months, primary data was gathered in Rwanda through participant observation, semi-structured interviews and a focus group. What is found from the analysis of this qualitative data is that training, assets, and access are each ‘sites of agency’ through which empowerment can be facilitated. These sites of agency, though, are not necessarily sufficient for doing so, in and of themselves. Rather, washing station owners must consider organizing these sites of agency in contextually-specific ways that reflect the unique experiences, needs and wants of women coffee producers.
Annex Between Participation and Social Capital for Collective Action Outcomes: Case Study of Muungano’s Self Help Saving Group System (Thesis)
This study is an attempt to provide an empirical analysis of the processes that link social capital and participation and examine how the processes that link the two are acting as enabling or constraining factors for collective action within the context of Kenya Slum Dwellers International’s (Muungano) self-help saving groups system in three urban poor communities in Nairobi- Korogocho, Mathare and Mukuru. The four main conclusions that the study draws are: (1) a contextualized understanding of social capital demands social science research to examine the processes through which structural and cognitive social capital reinforce each other; (2) Capable agency is the missing ingredient that determines how and if existing stocks of social capital will be harnessed and activated for collective action; (3) A contextualized understanding of the processes that simultaneously link productive and perverse social capital, which are mutually reinforcing is important in designing participatory methods that are fair, inclusive and equitable, thus encourage collective action; and (4) When a participatory methodology is more concerned with results as opposed to process, it creates or exacerbates existing divisions within the community, failing to achieve collective action. The evidence is drawn from existing data, pre-existing literature and predominantly a four-month field research based on interviews and focus group discussions and my interpretative inferences from them.
Playing, Learning and Developing: An Examination of Sport-for-Development Activities along the Thai – Burma Border
Given the increasing support and attention being given to Sport for Development (S4D) initiatives, this project seeks to examine and demonstrate how S4D projects are being implemented along the Thai-Burma Border, more specifically, in Mae La Refugee camp. There has been an increasing number of organizations using S4D as vehicle to attain development goals and objectives, and increasing support from donors and international bodies, like the United Nations, who are calling for the increased use of this new approach. As this new method of achieving development goals has emerged and is being utilized in a variety of settings, critics of the approach have highlighted that there is an overall lack of evidence that demonstrates whether or not S4D initiatives are in fact attaining the goals and outcomes set by organizations using the approach. This MRP will discuss the two primary ways in which S4D programs are currently being implemented along the Thai-Burma Border. Firstly, S4D is seen in the formal education system through training of teachers to use Play Based Learning methods, and in the inclusion of Health and Physical Education within the curriculum. Second, S4D is seen through Right to Play’s weekly S4D and Red Ball Child Play activity in Mae La. The findings of this study reveal that there is a disconnect between the methods that teachers are being taught and the implementation of Play Based Learning and thus S4D activities within their classrooms. It also suggests that there may need to be an adaptation in determining the success of these S4D programs through monitoring and evaluation.
China’s Civil Society in the Information Age: A Case Study of Free Lunch
This Major Research Paper is a qualitative exploration of Free Lunch, an innovative bottom-up initiative that provides lunches to poor rural schoolchildren. Founded in 2011, it relies upon social media, crowdfunding, extensive use of volunteers and cooperation with local governments in 23 provinces. The study is based on extensive field research with key members of Free Lunch in a number of provinces. It shows that a new type of grassroots civil society is emerging in China in cooperation with local governments; Secondly, Free Lunch’s reliance on social media has opened up avenues for increased public participation through crowdfunding and collective volunteering activities. The example of Free Lunch highlights the importance of the rise of social media and their effect on future state-society relations in China.
A Decade (2004/2005-2015) of Human Trafficking Discourses and the Implications for the Human Development of Guyanese People
Among the dominant global discourses on human trafficking in Guyana, and the contention among a range of organizations about the existence and scale of human trafficking, the government of Guyana is still strongly encouraged to execute efforts to combat trafficking albeit without a full grasp of the nature of human trafficking in Guyana and evaluations of anti-trafficking efforts. This Major Research Paper (MRP) explores the relevance and implications of the U.N. and the U.S. anti-trafficking interventions and their associated discourses in Guyana in relation to facilitating the human development of Guyanese people. Using a qualitative feminist theoretical framework, interviews in two locations in Guyana were conducted with private citizens and organizational representatives, supported by non-participant observation and secondary data sources. It was found that two human trafficking discourses predominate in Guyana - human trafficking as forced prostitution or sexual exploitation and as forced labour - both being the result of power relations between the U.S., international organizations and the government of Guyana, influencing significantly how human trafficking is discussed and acted upon. In light of these findings, it is recommended that local organizations, especially Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) are involved in the framing of agendas to combat human trafficking, and that action plans should take into consideration the socio-economic and political structures of Guyana within the context of the global political economy.
Organizational Approaches to Advancing the Conditions of Female Garment Workers in Bangalore, India
Women in developing countries have been the majority of those employed to work in export-oriented industries since the emergence of neoliberalism and the subsequent liberalization of trade policies beginning in the 1970s. Today, the garment sector continues to have one of the most feminized work forces in the world. In Bangalore, India, a city located in the Southern state of Karnataka, eighty-five per cent of garment workers are women, making it the most feminised garment industry in the nation compared to the male-dominated industries in the North. Female garment workers in Bangalore experience constant tensions in their lives. The sources of these tensions are the issues they face daily in the workplace and in the home. This paper seeks to investigate three organizational approaches used to improve the conditions of workers carried out in an increasingly complex and shifting regulatory framework for improving working conditions in the developing world. It will begin by conducting a deeper analysis of the tension and issues female garment workers face using a gendered lens. It will then examine the strategies, practices and goals of three different groups of organizations in the city of Bangalore, India: non-governmental organizations (NGOs), trade unions and multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) and evaluate the groups according to two criteria, 1) how their strategies align with the broader strategies of similar groups (this will be based on extant literature), and 2) how effective their strategies have been in helping female garment workers improve their livelihoods. In order to do this, it will be necessary to analyze how workers understand their strategies. By assessing them in this way, this research aims to find how these strategies fit into the broader context of labour regulation, both state and non-state regulation, and how organizations may begin to form better relationships with female garment workers in the future, which may help the workers, to some extent, improve their lives and reduce the tensions they face.
Globalization and Emerging Cities: Exploring the Role of NGO Services for Youth Development in Mumbai, India
Neo-liberal development in the current global era has fuelled the rapid urbanization of emerging cities in the Global South. The distinct conditions created by this urbanization have produced pressing development challenges for urban spaces in developing countries. The increasing demands and pressures put on low-income households in urban spaces has complicated the lives of urban dwellers. In response to this, NGOs have risen as a means through which local people have begun to respond to conditions, address needs and access services. Drawing from fieldwork in Mumbai, India from May to August of 2015, this paper aims to understand current urban dynamics in the city. Through engaging with the experiences of low-income youth between the ages of 18-25, this study explores their attitudes towards conditions in the city as well as their perspectives towards NGO services accessed by them. Seeking to articulate the voices of youth, this study affirms the view that the increasing role of NGOs has emerged as a positive force in cities with the potential to address urban conditions, identify needs and create opportunities for disadvantaged youth in Mumbai
Social Mobilization against Corruption at the Grass-Root Level in Bangladesh: The Role of Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB)
Since the beginning of the 1990s, many Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and local chapters of International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) started advocacy work to address the severe governance problems of many countries. However, despite their efforts, corruption has been increasing in many countries. Civil society organizations face various constraints on reforming governance in highly corrupt countries. NGOs' capacity to act against corruption depends on the nature of the state, a balance of power between the state and civil society organizations (CSOs), and accountability, legitimacy, representation, and trust of NGOs in the broader society within they are working. The research uses Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) as a case study to understand how a civil society organization can act against corruption in a highly corrupt and seemingly undemocratic state, and it also evaluates the challenges the organization is facing in its anti-corruption initiatives. The research findings show that the impacts of TIB's anti-corruption efforts at the grassroots level in Bangladesh are very limited. Greater effects have not been achieved for some reasons. First, due to lack of political opportunities, TIB developed its anti-corruption programs in such a way that don't challenge the existing power structure and powerful corrupt elites. The root causes of corruption in Bangladesh are inherently political, and it is tough to curb corruption without addressing the underlying causes of corruption. Second, accountability, trust, representation, and legitimacy are significant challenges for foreign-funded NGOs. In Bangladesh, political leaders and bureaucrats severely attack TIB as a ‘foreign agent’ when the organization publishes any reports regarding corruption of any government institutions. They also ask questions regarding TIB's legitimate right to criticize public institutions. Third, almost all of the successful social mobilization against governance reforms is bottom up, and the roles and participation of ordinary citizens are very high in these social movements. However, TIB's anti-corruption initiatives are top-down, and the involvement of ordinary citizens in TIB’s anti-corruption programs is very limited. Committee of Concern Citizens (CCC) and youth volunteers are critical elements of TIB's anti-corruption social mobilization, but they are not selected by the local people based on their leadership qualities, dedication, and closeness to the ordinary citizens. Instead, TIB officials created committees non-political CCCs based on public opinion and newspaper advertisement. As a result, the creation of CCCs and youth volunteers is artificial, and their capacity to mobilize local citizens is low and free rider problem is apparently high. Fourth, the success of any social movements depends on power balance between the state and civil society organizations. It is difficult for civil society groups to force a state to initiate serious governance reforms without the authority to impose sanctions against the government both at the local and national levels. Collaboration and cooperation among civil society organizations are necessary to make them a viable political force. However, TIB failed to create a broad-based alliance with other Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and professional civil society organizations in its anti-corruption initiative at the grassroots level. Due to institutional weakness of the civil society organizations, policy advocacy, and dialogues between the state and civil society is one-sided, and the state can easily avoid the demands of civil society groups without any political costs.
Southern Partners? China and Ghana’s Northern Regions: African Perspectives
The changing nature of the international political economy and landscape of development practice has been irrevocably altered by China’s global rise in political and economic pre-eminence. China’s emergence as a major actor in the development trajectories of African nations has, in recent years, threatened to displace the mainstream development model, which has traditionally been dominated by the West’s neoliberal conditionality-driven development agenda. Alternatively, Chinese diplomats have emphasized partnerships with southern countries that claim to be based on anti-imperialist horizontal principles of mutual benefit and equality. This study aims to voice African perspectives on China’s Southern partnership with Ghana, with a particular emphasis on the country’s northern regions—an area traditionally left behind by colonial and post-colonial export-oriented development priorities. This study’s findings suggest that China’s Southern partnership with Ghana is complex, made-up of both complementary and competitive implications for industrialization and the economic development of the country. Regardless of rhetoric or development partner, participants suggest that their country can only achieve significant levels of development and bridge the north-south development divide if Ghanaians become active participants in the decisions which affect the development of their country. Furthermore, it is suggested that the Ghanaian government create a strategy, similarly to how the West and China have created an ‘African strategy,’ to triangulate between donors, and negotiate development partnerships that prioritize the wellbeing of the Ghanaian people.
Youth Volunteers in El Salvador: Volunteerism as a Form of Positive Agency
El Salvador faces some of the highest crime and homicide rates in the world, with structural and direct violence embedded into society and politics since the times of conquest. This violence has manifested itself in different events throughout 20th century, such as the civil war in the 80s and continues to greatly impact the population into the 21st century with the proliferation of gangs. Young Salvadorans are particularly affected by this culture of violence, being the target of gangs and stigmatized by the wider population. Despite these circumstances, there are youth that are choosing to exercise positive agency through volunteerism and community engagement to strive for social change. This MRP analyzes how and why some youth are volunteering at organizations such as, the National Institute for Youth (governmental) and Centro de Intercambio y Solidardad (NGO). Through interviews and observations from research completed in the summer of 2015, this MRP hopes to provide evidence that young people volunteering are exercising positive agency for social change despite large structural constraints.
Rethinking Resource-Curse and Development: A Case Study of Community Perspectives to Shell and Nigerian Government in Ogoniland 4 years on from UNEP report publication
Much has changed for the Ogoni people 20 years since the death of the Ogoni 9 and for some not much has changed since the 2011 publication of the UNEP report. This paper critically examines the resource curse at the micro-level of the case of the Ogoni community, in relation to the uniqueness of the 2011 UNEP report. This research looks at an internationally backed initiative (2011 UNEP report) by the Nigerian government to address the grievances or concerns of a specific Niger delta community in the Ogoni case. In the case study on Ogoni, it is further argued that resource-curse thesis needs to be rethought using the rentier framework to illuminate the perceptions of Ogoni community stakeholders on both Shell and the Nigerian state. This paper concludes by revealing the theoretical consequence of not implementing the study’s recommendations is an allocative state rather than a productive one. On the practical side, the Nigerian state has created an enabling environment for corporate social negligence and irresponsibility.
Partnership as Legitimacy, Partnership as Identity: A comparative case study of two Canadian non-governmental organizations’ partnerships in Nicaragua
The international community has renewed its commitment to creating partnerships for development in the new Sustainable Development Goals. However, there is a lack of research about what partnership looks like in practice and how these relationships are created, maintained, and sustained. This MRP explores how two different models of NGO partnership between Canadian and Nicaraguan organizations function and are maintained in practice. Using semi-structured interviews, archival research, and working with a relational ethics, I ask whether mainstream or alternative models of partnership allow local partners in Nicaragua to operate with more autonomy. While both organizational models have strengths and weaknesses, the alternative partnership model lends itself to more transformative, rather than palliative, community development.
Micro-finance in Pakistan: Examining Gender and Entrepreneurship
Women belonging to low-income households are the primary clients of microfinance in the Global South. However, studies have indicated that in Pakistan women have limited access to credit. This research examines factors that prevent women from being the main beneficiaries of microfinance and the barriers that microfinance confronts in contributing to sustainable development in low-income households. This paper argues that the gender-blind policies of microfinance institutions limit women’s access to credit. Furthermore, women often utilize loans for household consumption or pass on loans to male-led enterprises due to the fact that women are not self-employed entrepreneurs. Gender-related issues and the traditional division of household labour prevent many women from engaging in entrepreneurial activity. In addition, the microfinance institutions studied in this research fail to enforce their own policy of only providing loans for the purpose of investment in an enterprise. A majority of loans are used for consumption smoothing purposes, which can eventually indebt clients and their families instead of resulting in an increase in income or empowerment.
The Political Ecology of Territorial Transformations: Community Response to La Colosa Gold Mining Project in Cajamarca, Colombia
This Major Research Paper (MRP) analyzes the diverse responses of the community of Cajamarca (Tolima, Colombia) to La Colosa gold mining project by the giant multinational mining company AngloGold Ashanti (AGA) and the polarization that followed the start of the exploratory phase of the project. I cluster the diver community responses into three major camps, namely, the pro-mining, the anti-mining, and the pragmatic camps. A study of the respective strategies of each camp, and their views about development in the territory of Cajamarca, reveals that the camps are mutually constituted through dynamic processes and that building legitimacy and support for or against mining is a contingent and fluid process, even at the exploration phase. This MRP aims to make these camps visible to understand how their responses, discourses, and strategies continuously shape and reshape the development of the region
Good Knowledge for Good Living? Interrogating the Cultural and Knowledge Revolutions in Ecuador
'Good Knowledge for Good Living' lies at the heart of a recent project by the Ecuadorian government to transition its economy away from reliance on non-renewable resources and become a society based on innovation, science and technology. As outlined in the 2008 Constitution and two National Development Plans (2009-2013 and 2013-2017), the state is seeking to provide universal access to quality education and the Internet to promote this transition. These initiates have been labeled the Cultural Revolution and the Knowledge Revolution. The former embodies the approach of universalizing access to quality education, and the latter refers to moulding a knowledge society based on human talent. The idea is that democratizing access to knowledge and information will lead to greater creative capacities that will increase levels of innovation.
This study examines the complexities these revolutions. It addresses the following questions: 1) what concrete steps has the Ecuadorian government taken to pursue the Cultural Revolution and the Knowledge Revolution? 2) Are there gaps in the implementation approaches? 3) Given the polarized political climate in Ecuador, what does the future hold for these initiatives? Conclusions drawn from this study seek to contribute to international debates on the usefulness of information and communication technologies for development.
Governance and Small-Scale Fisheries Development in the Greater Massawa Area, Eritrea
This Major Research Paper strives to analyze the complexities of ‘governance’ through an Interactive Governance Approach (IGA) to assess the development challenges of small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Greater Massawa Area (GMA). Despite mass efforts post-independence Eritrea’s SSF sector remains underdeveloped. This study provides a unique lens to understand these developmental concerns in the GMA by applying a holistic analysis of scales starting from Eritrea’s broader national development plan of self-reliance to the operationalization of this principle at the local level. This holistic approach includes fieldwork conducted in the GMA, with a mixed methods approach to study SSF through quantitative questionnaires, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and ethnographic field observations. Primary challenges highlighted include negative attitudes by fishermen towards cooperative membership, low trust levels amongst SSF actors and institutions, a lack of infrastructure and compliance by institutions including low capacity for enforcement, which then leads to the unpredictability of resources and fish catch. Overall these challenges highlight the intensity of interactions and interconnectedness of multiple scales of governance and their complexities in GMA. This study determines GMAs’ hierarchal forms of governing have created constraints on self-reliance both for the social and natural system to be governed. Rather than fostering human development and economic growth for SSF it leaves them vulnerable to external shocks as they rely heavily on the same institutions that are also weakened due to low interactions and administration. Therefore, a move towards co-governance would better support and develop the SSF sector with the inclusion of self-reliance as a development model.
Crafting Livelihoods: Handicraft Production and Fair Trade in the Philippines
Throughout the practice of international development there has been contention about the impact of Western-led development on the Global South. Approaches to development, such as fair trade need to be critically analysed to determine their true impact on those in the Global South. This paper examines the fair trade and handicraft production sector in the Philippines. Gendered aspects of handicraft production and fair trade and how factors, such as ability affect those who take part were investigated. It was important to analyze whether or not their work for fair trade organizations helps to relieve poverty and brings them into the decision-making process. An in-field qualitative study was conducted. This paper suggests that the fractured fair trade system within the Philippines has made it hard to assess fair trade’s ability to alleviate poverty for producers.
Peacebuilding and Collaborative Development: Transforming the Conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia
Since the late 1800’s, European countries such as Italy and the British government has intervened in state affairs of Ethiopia, dividing nations along ethnic and religious lines to weaken and control a wider strategical location around the naval lines of northern and north eastern Africa. As a result Eritrea was born as an Italian colony in 1890. On the other hand, post-Cold War, especially post9/11, the United States has been intervening in state and regional affairs of north and north eastern Africa, for its geopolitical and national interest. Some of my interviewees argue that the 2002 Ethio-Eritrean border resolution could not be implemented due to this competing US interest in that promotes competition between Horn of Africa countries in favour US’ support. According to Gilbert Rist, real development equals real cooperation (2014, P. 213). To make real cooperation or real development possible in the HOA, countries in the region need to have mutual trust and respect, as well as minimize external intervention to the level of sharing expertise, to manage cross-border trade and investment, the share of natural resources such as fresh water, and to tackle common threats such as climate change collaboratively. Therefore, sustainable peacebuilding initiatives not only will lead Ethiopia and Eritrea to regional collaboration, but it will also make development and citizen security sustainable in the Horn of Africa region as well.
The Role Of Turkish ODA in International Development Assistance
The global aid architecture is rapidly changing due in part to the emergence of new aid providers. The development co-operation landscape is becoming more complex and diverse with new approaches and attempts introduced by emerging actors. In the past ten years, Turkey increased its development assistance and demonstrated its ambition to become more active in promoting global development. Given such changes, the main objective of this research paper is to understand the role of Turkey in development cooperation. It aims to examine the reasons why Turkey is becoming increasingly involved in development assistance programs. In particular, it seeks to know if Turkey is emerging as a distinct donor that has interest in changing the global aid architecture. The study finds that Turkish development assistance is an integral aspect of its new foreign policy as the country aims to restore its past imperial image through its development assistance programs.
Friends With Benefits: Chinese Development Finance In Zambia
Over the past decade, China has solidified its role as a development financier. However, to date there remains a gap in the understanding of Chinese finance, its methodology and the extent of its funding to Africa. This Major Research Paper (MRP) analyzes Chinese finance in Africa with a particular focus on Zambia. First, it distinguishes between finance and aid—a concept often misconstrued in literature. Rather than focusing solely on the amount of finance China is providing to Zambia, this paper places emphasis on Zambia’s attraction to this finance vis-à-vis traditional donor and international financial institutional (IFIs) aid. Through case studies, the types of finance available and the associated risks are also identified and examined. During the course of my research, it was established that although Chinese finance is useful and attractive to the Republic of Zambia, it is mainly focused on infrastructure development as opposed to social and political development. Thus it remains complimentary to traditional sources of finance. Additionally, although existing literature suggests that China provides finance in Africa in exchange for resources, the Zambian case suggests otherwise.
Development Cooperation in Somaliland: Working in a Precarious State
Development discourse frequently limits development cooperation within the boundaries of nation-states, yet this must be redressed as many countries in Africa are experiencing political instability and fragility. This paper is a case study on Somaliland, an internationally unrecognized state, founded in 1991 following the collapse of the federal government in Somalia.
The purpose of this Major Research Paper is to illustrate how development cooperation currently exists in Somaliland and how the government of Somaliland has managed to navigate its particularly precarious unrecognized status, while pursuing its development agenda with local and international stakeholders. Three core themes are addressed in this study to illustrate how development cooperation has been established in Somaliland. The first is the country’s domestic and grassroots success in nation-state building, using both traditional and modern forms of governance. Secondly, Somaliland’s development agenda and its implementation will be addressed. Lastly, the creation of a unique approach to development cooperation that takes place outside the conventional partnerships between recognized nation-states and development stakeholder.
Finding Opportunities for Sustainable Growth: Women and Youth BPO Workers in Jamaica
Women and youth workers are the backbone of the business process outsourcing industry in Jamaica. It is an industry driven by the pre-eminence of the market and transnationalism that is very much a feature of globalisation. Those elements are the greatest influencers on working conditions within the industry and are determinants on how countries engage in the global economy. Therefore, an understanding of the factors that support or hinder workers’ ability to establish economic stability through BPOs is critical if the industry is to be seen as part of the strategy to improve their living conditions and that of their families. Given Jamaica’s fragile economy, proponents of the industry see the expansion of export services as a strategy to improve the economy and as a result, have been promoting information processing as a tool to generate growth. While the industry holds some promise, policymakers cannot ignore the inherent challenges and should therefore, ensure that gender equality and youth concerns form a significant part of these discussions.
A Study on Freedom of the Press and Human Development in Bangladesh
This paper contends that politicisation and corporatisation of press in Bangladesh have negatively affected its ability to perform its core functions of providing accurate information and offering a forum for diverse opinions and perspectives. As a result, press failed to contribute to build an effective and transparent public sphere and in consequence it was ineffective in fostering the country’s human development. In making the argument this paper resorts to Amartya Sen’s philosophy on human development in terms of Capability approach and Edward’s premise on public sphere.
Religion, Spirituality, and Maternal Health Seeking Behaviours Cape Coast, Ghana: A Case Study
How relevant are religion and spirituality to maternal health seeking behaviours in Cape Coast, Ghana? This is the primary question that will be addressed in this paper. It seeks to establish whether or not there is a connection between pregnant women’s religious and spiritual beliefs and their decision-making with regard to prenatal care, labour, and childbirth. The study focuses on the experiences of women in Cape Coast, which is in the Central region of Ghana. This paper seeks to problematize the idea that religion and what has been called “traditional spiritual belief” exist as two separate belief systems. Instead, I argue that these so-called “traditional” beliefs intersect and combine with Christian beliefs, and vice versa, in resulting in belief systems that incorporate both God and the ‘smaller gods’, and that this concept has significant bearing on the topic of maternal health seeking behaviours. It is important to understand the nature of belief systems in the Ghanaian context, and to understand the contribution of what I will term both religion and spirituality to maternal health seeking behaviours. Findings indicate that religion and spirituality, conceived of here as a conceptual whole, have direct influence on maternal health seeking behaviours in Cape Coast, particularly with regard to the behaviours and decisions made during pregnancy, as well as the choice of where, and with whom, to deliver.
Serving your guests: Capacity Building Among Local Refugee-serving NGOs in Jordan
With hundreds of thousands escaping armed conflict in Syria, the neighbouring Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is currently experiencing the largest presence of refugees on its land to date. United Nations organizations and international NGOs are actively operating in Jordan to respond to the Syrian crisis until their finite resources are called upon to address situations in other parts of the world. Here, the local government and NGOs are called upon to step up and fill the gap created by the absence of international aid. However, despite seven decades of experience hosting refugees from the region, local civil society still takes a back seat in meeting the needs of displaced populations seeking refuge in Jordan.
My research explores the position of local NGOs in the aid sector in Jordan today and their development needs. It focuses on knowledge transfer as means of capacity building via partnerships between local and international NGOs in the field. The research goes on to highlight other factors that present challenges to building the capacity of local non-profit organizations such as conditional aid, NGO corporate sociology, and government support. It concludes by offering recommendations for overcoming obstacles to empowering NGOs in the local Jordanian context in order to promote the growth of a democratized, empowered civil society in the Kingdom.
From the Peaks and Back: Exploring the Educational Journeys of Trans-Himalayan Students in Kathmandu, Nepal
In a rapidly modernizing Nepal where urbanization is on the rise, families in rural areas participate by sending their children to urban schools, vast distances from home. Children/youth who have migrated to Kathmandu from Trans-Himalayan regions of Nepal, who experience interconnected and multidimensional conditions of poverty are the focus of this study. The journey these students undertake to Kathmandu span thousands of kilometres and often results in long-term (multi-year) family separation. The children in this study who migrated were between the ages of 4-10 and did not return for several years, with very minimal and/or no contact with family during this period of family separation. This thesis explores and chronicles the journeys taken and rationales for such acute family migration experiences; educational integration of Himalayan students into boarding school residency in Kathmandu; and emotional articulations of return visits back to their remote villages.
“Education Helps Girls Stop Being Traditionalists”: Negotiating Gender Identity in Contradictory Discursive Environments
Girls’ education in developing countries has been narrowly framed in global discourses, particularly in terms of access and potential for economic growth. This study contests the prevailing overemphasis on the economic gains of girls’ schooling, and situates girls’ lived experiences of education in Nairobi, Kenya’s schooling environment. The qualitative study seeks an understanding of how girls’ education discourses are interpreted, globally and locally, and how these interpretations are drawn upon, distilled, and navigated by girls themselves. Interviews with secondary school students in Nairobi revealed that the participants were compelled to negotiate and accommodate conflicting demands regarding appropriate gender roles, which had harmful effects on their experiences of schooling. The participants were revealed to be embedded in contradictory discursive environments, which stretched them in multiple directions – encouraging them with hopes of endless possibilities through education, while limiting those very possibilities by disciplining their attitudes and beliefs within the school.
A Focus on Anti-Trafficking and Related Policies in Thailand: The Findings and the Influences During the 2014 Coup D’ẻtat
Past studies critiqued the Thai government for its lack of adequate results and improvement in their anti-trafficking efforts despite their formal agreement to comply with UNODC’s Protocols to trafficking in persons. Due to circumstances, this research primarily focuses on answering why there is an implementation gap in Thailand’s anti-trafficking policies. This research collected data by conducting participant observation to collect relevant information during the on-going coup d’état; policy analysis on all Thai policies relevant to anti-trafficking; and semi-structured interviews with participants from various NGOs. The findings of this research reveals that at a policy level, Thailand sufficiently shows compliance with UNODC’s Protocols. However, at a practical level, there is a significant implementation gap of these policies. There is certainly a pattern revealing the importance of Thailand’s reputational status between its neighbouring countries and to their international audience.
Marginalization, Violence and Intra-Urban Displacement: A comparative case study of La Loma and Moravia in Medellin, Colombia
This Major Research Paper discusses the relationship between internal displacement and marginalization in Medellin, Colombia. It examines whether internal displacement increases a person’s/group’s marginality, which in turn may increase their chances of being displaced in the future. It also explores what role the state plays in the lives of those facing these conditions and whether those who are marginalized by displacement possess agency to break this cycle. This research explores and responds to these questions by reviewing data collected using qualitative research methods (i.e. semi-structured interviews and participant observation) over a 14-week period from two communities – La Loma and Moravia – in Medellín. Both communities differ from each other in terms of culture, history, and ethnic/racial demographics, yet they have both experienced, or are currently experiencing, intra-urban displacement--internal displacement that occurs within urban spaces, whose victims resettle within the same municipality from which they were evicted. The findings from this study indicate that not only both communities were extremely marginalized before they were displaced due to poverty, race/ethnic inequalities and unfavourable/distant geographic location, but that their marginalization increased after their displacement. Moreover, following displacement the communities were more vulnerable to violence and more susceptible to future displacement. The communities however were not without power, even if it was modest, to affect and possibly change their circumstances. The communities were able to use social capital as way of gaining political and social leverage in order to see their needs and aspirations met. In addition, the findings showed that the municipality’s role in the communities was often contradictory and its actions were perceived by community members as responding to the strategic interests and urban development plans of the state rather than the interests of the people in the communities.
Normalizing the Abnormal or Abnormalizing the Normal? Locating Taiwan in Today’s Global Aid Architecture
Despite decades of providing international development aid, Taiwan’s image as an aid provider has often been overshadowed by its infamous use of ‘dollar diplomacy’ and its unrelenting pursuit of sovereignty. Yet in 2008 with the Ma administration’s “viable diplomacy” policy and the proposed diplomatic truce to cease cross-strait aid rivalry, one comes to question its implications on Taiwan’s aid programs and how Taiwan as a donor figures in the current global aid regime. Using updated literature as well as primary data and insights collected through interviews with government officials, ex-officials and experts on Taiwan’s development assistance, Taiwan’s present aid approach was found to be neither “North” nor “South”. While at the level of discourse it mimicked the North in striving for “normality” in the international community, in practice however, its past aid traditions were largely maintained. Although Taiwan’s “normalcy” is undermined by its abnormal circumstances, namely its contested sovereignty and the ongoing cross-strait tensions, like other “normal” countries, it relies on a myriad of aid strategies to engage in the current global order.
Determinants of Health: The Role of Small Non-Governmental Organisations in The Delivery of Maternal Health Care Services in Highland Guatemala
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are the main providers of health care in rural Guatemala and offer a viable alternative to state services. Examining how small NGOs fit into this complex health system and how and what they offer in terms of health care services is the focus of this study. Twenty-two interviews with NGO and public health care staff, midwives and mothers were conducted in Highland Guatemala and the collected data compared and contrasted contracted and independent NGO approaches to maternal health care. The findings of this study reveal that small health NGOs play an important role performing the responsibilities of the state and often offer the only health care available to rural communities. Contracted NGOs offer a minimum of health services in areas that the state and independent NGOs are unable to access and mothers will travel to independent NGOs for fast, quality, respectful and affordable health care.
Participation, Community, and Self-Help: Buzzwords or Tools for Social Power? A Case Study of “Khuda Ki Basti” In Pakistan
Participation, community driven development, and self-help are terms frequently used in development theory and practice, which imply local and grassroots alternatives for human development. However, their meanings and implications for human development are often vague and context-dependent. This Major Research Paper (MRP) will explore the meaning of these three terms in the context of a local initiative called, “Khuda ki Basti” (KKB), a housing project initiated by a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Pakistan called Saiban. How these concepts are currently manifested at KKB and how they impact the agency of the beneficiaries are explored in this study. The main goal is to carefully examine the purpose of the usage of these three terminologies. Are they becoming buzzwords or can these concepts be used as tools to promote human development in a way that transforms the current power structures, and help the beneficiaries of KKB to challenge the status quo?
Women’s Higher Education in Saudi Arabia and Gender In/equality: Tensions, Contestations and Relationships
While Saudi women continue to graduate from post-secondary institutions in Saudi Arabia and abroad in ever increasing numbers, the reported state of gender inequality in the country according to institutions such as the UNDP remains inexplicably high. This study attempts to understand why this is the case by critically examining the relationships between post-secondary education and gender inequality in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It does this by attempting to understand the perceptions and experiences of Saudi female university students and recent graduates of gender inequality. It also explores the responses of these women to the presence or absence of gender inequality they experience in the city. This is accomplished by investigating the perceptions and experiences of women from two perspectives. The first is a critique of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, known as the social power approach to human development. This approach holds that the ultimate purpose of development processes is social justice, not human development. Gender justice through reduction in gender inequalities constitutes one form of social justice, and the possibility of its achievement through women’s higher education is examined through this work. The second perspective is a critical faith centred framework, which creates space for understanding the agency of women of faith within anti-racist discourse. In this research, this framework allows one to understand the responses of Muslim women living in a highly Islamised context to gender inequality experienced and/or perceived.
Keywords: Gender (in) equality, Saudi Arabia, social power, higher education
Power, Gender and HIV: How Behaviour Change Communication Facilitates Garifuna Women’s Use of Condoms for HIV Prevention in Dangriga, Belize
Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a crucial aspect of HIV prevention, especially as it aims to modify specific behaviours that contribute to HIV vulnerability. In this study, I explore the role of BCC in how Garifuna women use condom for HIV prevention in Dangriga, Belize. I focus specifically on BCC strategies adopted in Belize, the role of women’s empowerment and agency in condom use, knowledge of HIV and condoms, as well as the main barriers to condom use. I conclude that among the Garifuna population in Dangriga, behaviour change interventions have proven beneficial in educating women and men about HIV, increasing women’s empowerment and agency, as well as influencing increased use of condom. However, there is inconsistent translation of that information/education into knowledge for social change. Despite Garifuna populations having high levels of condom knowledge, this does not always result in practical use in relationships. This inconsistent use, however, goes beyond the personal level and must be understood within the broader political, social and economic structures that impact on the ability of target populations to successfully adopt condom negotiating behaviour.
Breaking Poverty Traps with Band-Aid Solutions: The Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfers in Columbia
There are positive results on Conditional Cash Transfer’s (CCTs) outputs and outcomes, as stated in the quantitative and qualitative assessments completed. Nonetheless, CCTs´ effectiveness in human capital building, poverty reduction and inequality have not been properly evaluated. An independent theory-based evaluation of Colombia’s CCT was conducted to assess its efficacy and effectiveness. CCT´s theory was designed to guide this evaluation. The study found that the initial assumptions for this program were misleading, and the expected impacts on poverty and inequality reduction were not achieved and will not be achieved if the set conditions remain the same. Furthermore, the study found that CCTs do not break the vicious cycle of intergenerational poverty. Reasons for implementing and expanding CCTs could have been influenced by socio-political benefits. Regardless of these findings, subsidies without conditionalities are required to satisfy the basic needs of the poorest populations since the labour market cannot generate enough employment.
The other side of gender: Understanding how gender roles affect male restavẽks in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
This research explores the significance of a gender-focus in targeting child labour in domestic work. As manifested in research and support services, the tendency is to almost exclusively focus on strategies tailored for females and their concerns. This case-study in Haiti attempts to fill the gap by expanding the analysis of the victim of child labour in domestic work and recognizing the different experiences and needs of male and female victims. The purpose is not to detract from girls, who are clearly at a higher risk of exploitation and abuse, but to recognize that boys are affected too. By focusing on the agency of males, their perception as victims and survivors is often veiled. Thus, there is a great deal of need to reflect on how prevailing gender norms affect both males and females. In this light, this research aims to critically examine the relationship between gender and child labour in domestic work in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. In particular, it critically examines the social constructs of males and females in Haiti in order to explore how this affects the experiences, risks and consequences of child labour in domestic work. Additionally, it explores the theoretical and practical implications of child labour in domestic work for policies and programs. The case-study in Haiti clearly illustrates how the experiences and impacts of exploitation for both males and females are influenced differently by the social expectations which shape their identity. The findings of this study are meant to suggest that the particular forms of gender analysis are one-sided and require further inquiry into the experiences and needs of boys than is currently given by international institutions and policy-makers. Additionally, these insights into the experiences and consequences of child labour in domestic for boys can contribute to the formation of gender-focused tools, programs and strategies for children labourers in domestic work.
Preparing for Uncertainty: Exploring Access to Higher Education in Dzaleka Refugee Camp, Malawi
Against a backdrop of increasingly protracted refugee situations worldwide and on the continent of Africa in particular, education is imperative to facilitate the ability of displaced persons to voice their concerns and ambitions. Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Dzaleka Refugee camp in Malawi during Summer 2013, this thesis adopts an Afro-centered approach to studying the relationship between education and development. Utilizing oral histories and interviews, it explores educational access, the displacement of young people and their desire for higher education. This desire is linked to first, a self-realization that is expressed as control over their lives in a context of heightened uncertainty and second, an increased potential to contribute to the current betterment of their own and their families’ lives. Despite increasingly protracted situations for refugees and mixed migrants in Malawi, it is extremely difficult to find cartographic evidence of Dzaleka’s existence amongst other documentation of forced migration in the region. This thesis works collaboratively with refugee youth narrators to bring visibility to the place they live. Moreover, this work contributes to the view that those described as refugees in protracted refugee situations can contribute to a discursive and structural shift by ‘self-authoring’ their own development. Access to higher education is recognized as one of the key ways to enable and support this shift.
A Critical Gaze at Male Underachievement in Two High Schools in Rural Jamaica
Since the 1990s, studies on gender differential education have placed a huge emphasis on the recurring problem of boys being outperformed by girls. Using data obtained in a qualitative study conducted at two high schools in Manchester, Jamaica, this paper seeks to critically examine the gendered relationship between boys’ underachievement and the educational policies. Using combination of the masculinity and intersectional frameworks as well as a discourse analysis of neoliberalism, this paper argues that boys underachievement transpire in the complexities of gender in relation to patriarchy, region (rural area), class, culture, institutional and governmental along with socio-economic factors. The paper highlights the problematic issues relating to the use of the rote pedagogy and Jamaican state’s scant attention to the boys’ underachievement. The paper then proceeds to suggests working policy interventions to resolve boys’ underachievement and bring about human development.
Keywords: Jamaica; Boys’ Underachievement; Secondary Education; Gender Intersectionality; Neoliberal Discourse
Disciplining South-South Cooperation: The Case of Ghana-Brazil Trilateral Cooperation in Social Protection
Rising powers from the Global South such as Brazil, China, and India are intensifying their development cooperation with African countries. Yet, despite recent interest in the foreign policy implications for rising powers, scholars have neglected the processes and outcomes of these emerging relations from the perspectives of African countries. Consequently, a significant narrative is omitted from the discourse on South-South cooperation. This critical case analyses three Ghanaian social protection programmes created in collaboration with Brazilian policymakers and multilateral donors: the Livelihoods Empowerment against Poverty (cash transfers), Homegrown School Feeding, and Purchase for Progress (local procurement). The study draws on data collected from semi-structured interviews, participant observation, an analysis of social artifacts, and existing scholarly literature. Findings showed emerging complementarities between social protection interventions and increased domestic support for rights-based approaches to poverty reduction. However, decision-making power and epistemic privilege remain highly concentrated in the hands of multilateral donors, circumscribing and disciplining South-South cooperation.
SAWP: Lost in Translation. The Official Contract Versus Civil Society Organizations’ Language Training to Protect Migrant Farm Workers in Southern Ontario
Focusing on Canada’s “best practice” program on labour migration, the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program, this paper will critically analyze and deconstruct the official employment contract and uncover the human rights violations that are institutionalized within the program. It will prove that the bilateral agreement and official contract between Canada and Mexico is inadequate in protecting the rights of temporary migrant workers in Canada. On the contrary, the agreement institutionalizes structural barriers, one of which includes restricting their language acquisition, which severely limits Mexican workers’ ability to access and/or protect their rights. Further, this paper will examine the role language plays in compounding the structural barriers plaguing the experiences Mexican migrant workers in Canada. Lastly, I argue that civil society organizations can play a critical role in providing the kind of support, empowerment, and education that could transform the capacity of migrant workers to demand and protect their rights in Canada.
Can Social Business Promote Development? A Case Study of Grameen Danone Food Ltd. in Bangladesh
My research explores how social business affects the conditions in Bangladesh. It undertakes a qualitative approach and adopts a case study method to investigate a market-based for-profit organization working towards addressing social problems within the context of a developing country. A case study was carried out on Grameen Danone Foods Limited (GDF), a social business in Bangladesh. GDF is a social business with the aim to provide an affordable and easily available dairy product developed to fulfill the nutritional needs of Bangladeshi children. The paper examines how GDF interacts with its stakeholders who are socially and economically vulnerable. It seeks to understand how its relationship has developed and how it has influenced and shaped the economic and social position of these marginal stakeholders and, in turn, support poverty reduction. It also examines the challenges faced by a social business working in a rural area in Bangladesh. The study found that the marginal stakeholders do benefit from their relationship with GDF: improvements in interpersonal and marketing skills, livestock management know-how, and increase in additional income. However, the women participants remain in a precarious position ─ no job security, which needs to be addressed. In addition, social business models require longer time to become sustainable. Therefore, it is very important to manage expectations among its internal staff and external partners.
Keywords: Social business, social enterprise, social development, economic development, stakeholder, Bangladesh
Economic Crisis and Migration: Syrian Asylum Seekers in Athens
As a signatory of the 1951 UNHCR Convention for Human Rights, Greece has committed to recognizing asylum-seekers and upholding their rights as specified under that Convention. But the 2008 economic crisis has put considerable stress on the Greek state and local population, with devastating effects on asylum seekers in Greece. This paper engages with the ways by which the economic crisis in the Eurozone and resulting austerity measures have limited the ability of the Greek government to provide care and safety to its asylum-seekers. Through its inability to maintain and protect the human rights of those seeking protection overseas, Greece has been deficient in addressing the humanitarian needs of its asylum seekers, shirking its responsibilities towards refugees under international law.
Rethinking Health: A Case Study of the Mymensingh Brothel in Bangladesh
Globally, sex workers are targeted for development intervention. Primarily this intervention revolves around the prevention, and spread of HIV/AIDs that is a part of, or encompasses reproductive health programs. This study argues that although NGOs have an important role in providing health care services to sex workers, the scope of health-related development programming available in Mymensingh Sadar, Bangladesh does not fully address sex workers’ health. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 participants of whom many live at the Mymensingh Sadar brothel in Bangladesh. The study finds that while preventative intervention around HIV is necessary, there are other health issues to consider that are of importance for sex workers’ health.
Informalisation and Precarity: Understanding the Lived Experiences of Workers in the Informal Textile Production in Lusaka, Zambia
This paper is based on fieldwork research study in Lusaka, Zambia. It provides an overview of how Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) through privatisation, deregulation and trade liberalisation have impacted the livelihoods of the majority of the population. The introduction of SAPs in Zambia during the early 1990s resulted in the contraction of the formal economy and gave rise to the expansion of the informal economy that is largely concentrated in the urban setting. While the informal economy has existed in Zambia since the first post-independence government of United National Independence Party (UNIP) government of Dr. Kenneth Kaunda, the current informal sector has degenerated and become associated with increased poverty and precarious working conditions. The study focuses on the informal domestic textile and clothing production sectors operating within the capital city of Lusaka where more than two thirds of the population are dependent on the informal economy for their livelihoods in the midst of the diminishing job prospects in the formal sector. It shows how the loss of jobs in the formal sector gives rise to the expansion of a precarious and informal sector that has a multiple negative effects on the lives of affected households. The paper also shows how the liberalised economic policies have brought about a surge of cheap imports of Chinese manufactured textiles and used clothes from Western countries that have chocked the retail textile market of Lusaka, hence affecting local production and skills.
What’s Love Got To Do With It? Policy, Practice and Perspectives on Alternative Orphan Care in Uganda
According to UNICEF, there are currently over 132 million orphans in the world. In Africa, this situation is predominantly explained as one of the consequences of HIV/AIDS, conflict, and poverty. Children are placed into orphanages for numerous reasons, often without consideration of the capacity of extended family to care for them and without an understanding of the social conceptualizations of institutional care. In Uganda, there has been a significant increase in the number of orphanages, from which children are eligible for both domestic and intercountry adoption. Intercountry adoption practices over the last two decades have increased the vulnerability of Ugandan children, placed them in precarious situations with weak protection and care, and put pressure on a particularly weak national childcare system. Domestic solutions are being sought to overcome these challenges and to preserve cultural traditions and structures. Alternative care policy and practice, however, are at odds with one another, despite government and NGO attempts to formulate a strong domestic framework to provide security and stability for Uganda’s vulnerable children.
This paper presents findings from fourteen stakeholder interviews conducted in Kampala in summer 2013 with Ugandan adoptive parents and representatives of local and international NGOs, government, and academia. All interviewees were involved with vulnerable and orphan childcare policy or practice. The paper presents stakeholders’ perspectives on the challenges and opportunities related to alternative care interventions in Uganda. It also discusses the implications of these findings for childcare practitioners, potential intercountry adoptive parents, and policymakers.
Making the Case for Development: Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in Pakistan
With resurgence of interest in the role of the private sector in development, CSR in Asia is on the rise. Pakistan is no exception, although most of the literature coming out of the country is management-oriented, focusing on the 'business case', or the benefits corporations can enjoy by engaging in CSR. On the other side of this debate are questions among development scholars around the potential of effective CSR to contribute to ‘solving’ development problems. This perspective is known as the 'development case', which focuses primarily on beneficiary experiences and benefits. This MRP explores a particular CSR project of Shell Pakistan, an MNC seen as among the forerunners of CSR in Pakistan. Through qualitative research, this research explores how company rhetoric around CSR engagement compares to the reality of beneficiary experiences. This paper finds that there is a significant disjuncture between rhetoric and reality, identifying three areas. The research methodology used is valuable in understanding beneficiary perceptions of any CSR project.
China’s Agricultural engagement in Africa: An Overview of Chinese Private Direct Investments in Ghana’s agricultural Sector and the implications for South-South Relations
This research project is concerned with the changing nature of investments and development partnerships between China and Africa. Using Ghana’s agricultural sector as a site of analysis, the paper explores China’s agricultural engagement in Africa and how it affects African development. The objectives of this paper is to understand processes by which Chinese agricultural entrepreneurs have engaged in Ghana, what are the dynamics of their activities and what might be the implications for the ongoing debate. It is argued that African governments have leverage and agency in orienting and shaping China’s development interventions in the pursuit of national development agendas. Furthermore, it is suggested that private small scale enterprises are increasingly the drivers of China’s agricultural engagement in Ghana as a result of a fragmented authority or disjunction in the policy formulation and implementation of China’s Africa policy. The relative autonomy of these profit-driven individual enterprises has the potential of altering the nature of south-south cooperation between the two regions. Ultimately, the paper submits that despite its innovative approach to development cooperation, China has not revolutionized nor expanded the ideological space for development theory or practices but in fact continues to work within and reinforce a market-oriented development paradigm of which it has become a strong proponent.
Examining the Contributions of Local Civil Society Organizations to the Migrant Justice Movement in Virgil, Ontario
The Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) has brought thousands of migrant agricultural workers from the Caribbean and Mexico to the orchards, vineyards and greenhouses of Virgil, Ontario in the years following the Program’s inception in 1966. Despite the historical presence of migrant workers in this town, there is a clear disconnect between workers and local community members. Over the years, civil society organizations (CSOs) have emerged in an effort to promote the social inclusion of migrant workers and provide them with access to health care and administrative support services. The role these CSOs have assumed as service providers is burdensome on time and resources and limits their ability to work towards their other goal of facilitating social inclusion. This paper argues that the retreating presence of the state as a guarantor of access to rights and entitlements has forced CSOs to fill this gap and assume the role of service providers, causing them to undermine their potential intervention in challenging the social exclusion migrant workers experience in Virgil.
Social Networks and “Agency”: Exploring Afghan Male Refugees’ Settlement Experience in Toronto
Most of the literature on the settlement experience of refugees in Canada has narrowly focused on employment and labour market participation within either a human capital or social capital framework. Having interviewed six young Afghan refugees about their settlement experience in Toronto, I argue in this paper that both human capital and social networks of refugees are important in their successful settlement. I argue that while human capital alone cannot adequately explain the settlement experience of refugees, it is an important enabler of refugees’ agency. In addition, using the structuration theory, I further argue that structures as rules, such as lack of recognition of foreign credentials, can constrain refugees’ agency to successfully settle in their new home whereas structures as resources, such as social networks of friends, may be enabling.
The Attitudies of Afghan Men on Gender Equality and Women’s Rights in Afghanistan
Much research on gender issues and the status of women from the perspective of scholars, researchers and development agencies has been done in Afghanistan since 2001 when NATO forces ousted the Taliban government, most of it focused on women’s issues. There is however, a lack of direct local research on how Afghan men view these efforts to promote gender equality and women’s rights. As a result of a four month research project in Kabul, I found that the efforts of the international community to promote gender equality and improve conditions for women in Afghanistan have not worked. In contrast, they have provoked Afghan men into more defensive and conservative positions, rather than convinced them that women are equal to men. This holds true regardless of education levels and urban or rural residence in the province of Kabul, based on focus groups with Afghan men and interviews with local experts knowledgeable about the implementation of gender policies. I further argue that the international community has failed to uncover and respond to the objections and rationales against gender equality by which Afghan men justify their position. This lack of cultural and religious sensitivity by the international community is a major factor in the decrease in support by Afghan men for gender equality and women’s rights.
Empowering Women and Improving Gender Equality?: The Relevance of Mdg3 in the Context of Georgetown, Guyana
By overemphasizing growth through neoliberal economic policies, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund have influenced mainstream development initiatives in a way that has integrated the concepts of ‘gender equality’ and ‘women’s empowerment’ into Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3) in loose and limited ways devoid of their original political meaning. Numerous scholars have therefore criticized the MDGs for being insufficient for promoting substantive equality. However, little research has focused on the relevance of the MDGs at the local level. This thesis discusses the extent to which MDG3 is on the development agenda in Georgetown, Guyana, while interrogating the relevance achievements on this goal have for grassroots women. Through an assessment of MDG3 programming, and an examination of the lived experiences of grassroots women from Georgetown, I argue that MDG3 is not being addressed at the organizational level in Guyana, nor does it speak to urban Guyanese women’s needs and priorities.
Maya Women in Defence of Territory and Madre Tierra in Guatemala: The Case of San Juan Sacatepéquez
This paper takes as a case study the conflict between Maya-Kaqchikel communities and the company Cementos Progreso Ltd. (CEMPRO) in San Juan Sacatepéquez. The Movement of the 12 Communities has been opposing the CEMPRO project, geared towards cement production, since 2006. This paper takes Maya women’s narratives as a departure point in seeking to understand the situation in San Juan Sacatepéquez. Findings suggest that the CEMPRO project, and the ensuing conflict over its implementation, have had differential impacts on rural Maya women. Findings also suggest that Maya women are playing a crucial role in efforts to halt the project. Moreover, findings suggest that the conflict has catalyzed greater political engagement by Maya women, who have faced historical exclusion and ongoing marginalization, reconfiguring unequal gender relations locally.
Building Program Evaluation Capacity through Information Technology within Development Organizations: a Case Study of the DREAM Project in Dominican Republic
This study is anchored in the following main question: how do organizational and contextual contingencies influence the adoption and assimilation of technological applications used in Evaluation Capacity Building (ECB)? The researcher looks at the factors, which both impeded and facilitated the DREAM Project’s Evaluation capacity building strategy, which was based on one ‘Cloud’ application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The focus here is on the processes of technology adoption and assimilation for the purposes of enhancing evaluation capacity in small International Development organizations. It is hoped that insights from this study would contribute to the broader discussions concerning the role, which ICT can play in the evaluation field and development at large.
The Network and Neighborhood Aspects of Social Capital and the Economic Wellbeing of the Women Borrowers: A Case Study of the Grameen Bank’s Microcredit Program in Sylhet, Bangladesh
This major research paper investigates how social capital as networks and neighborhood relationships composed of mutuality and confidence influences the economic wellbeing of the members of the Grameen Bank. Drawing on a case of a branch of the Grameen Bank in Sylhet, Bangladesh, this study shows that microcredit nurtures a network of social relationships among the members of the Bank, and is constantly changing economic conditions of the participants in the area. The lack of efficiency in the mobilization of resources from the networks and the inability to invest the loan in a commercial enterprise are the major obstacles to the economic wellbeing of rural women in Mullargaon.
The Missing Linkages: Value added and the Tanzania Textile and Garment Sector
Industrial activity is important to economic diversification and improved livelihoods, which underpin inclusive growth. Industrialization is contingent on state’s policy autonomy and capacity to develop and implement industrial stages. For primary commodity export-dependent countries such as Tanzania, economic diversification is best achieved through the promotion of value-added industrial activities, as has been asserted in the state’s recent Integrated Industrial Development Strategy 2025. However, international financial institutions, and the World Bank in particular, continue to promote a narrow focus on export-oriented foreign direct investment-led growth, favouring primary commodity export. This paper will explore Tanzania’s incipient efforts to industrialize in a post-adjustment era, through analyzing the textile and garment sectors. Textile sectoral strategies from 2000 onwards will be examined to assess alignment with broader value addition goals, and the factors that may affect policy implementation. This paper will suggest that sectoral strategies have been beset by policy coherence and coordination hurdles. Most striking is the omission of policy interventions to increase value addition and improve domestic linkages, which may be indicative of the difficulty in challenging dominant policy prescriptions.
Averting the Resource Curse in Ghana: The Role of Civil Society Prospects and Limitations
While the resource curse is still contested at a theoretical level, in practice there is some concern about the harmful potential effects for countries overly dependent on natural resources. As a result, a number of resource-rich developing countries are increasingly adopting different multi-stakeholder initiatives in an effort to avoid the resource curse phenomenon. While civil society is often expected to play a key role in these multi-stakeholder initiatives there has been very limited efforts to explicitly consider how civil society groups understand the resource curse, see their role in the fight to avoid the resource curse and the extent to which civil society is able to effectively play this role. This is particularly true in the context of Ghana where oil has recently been discovered in commercial quantities. Hence, while popular discourse, including governmental and civil society rhetoric, is shaped by how Ghana can avoid the Nigerian experience, and follow in the steps of their role model, Norway, the extent to which civil society can live up to the expectations of it in multi-stakeholder initiatives remains unexamined. This Major Research Paper seeks to critically examine how civil society groups understand the resource curse, and the nature of their efforts to avoid the resource curse vis-a-vis multi-stakeholder initiatives. This Major Research Paper will argue that while civil society in Ghana accepts the concept of the resource curse as having practical implications, its ability to play an effective role to help avert it remains limited and at times contradictory. This Major Research Paper concludes by considering the implications for efforts to avoid the resource curse phenomenon in resource-rich African countries.
Food A Gateway to Political Change: Transverse Solidarity and the Stop Community Food Centre
The Food Movement is fragmented in three groups, social service providers, alternative food initiatives, and advocacy and action as it reacts toward the lack of democracy in the food system. Tension exists between the fractions as pragmatic solutions are criticized for allowing the state to download its responsibility onto civil society and policy reform advocates are criticized for not having concrete plans for achieving change or taking a long time, using a lot of resources, and having very little to show for it. A class dimension is added to the tension, creating an even bigger divide within the movement, as how one accesses food is directly linked to ones access to resources, therefore certain forms resistance are only available to those who have the resources to engage. A case study of one Toronto organization, The Stop Community Food Centre, highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with housing all three approaches within one organization for building transverse solidarity that could lead to engaging the state in the movement’s cause.
Investigating Conceptual Approaches to Sexual Violence in Refugee Contexts: Case Illustrations from Kampala, Uganda
Organizational responses and media representations of sexual violence in conflict tend to reinforce a damaging dichotomy of woman/victim and man/perpetrator. Women and girls face disproportionately higher levels of sexual violence in times of war as well as peace, but men and boys can also be victims. In a refugee context, where traditional gender roles are challenged and sometimes overturned, issues of gender-based violence must be carefully addressed. Given that it is the unequally powered gender relations that facilitate and even encourage sexual violence; this paper begins with the understanding that those gender relations and the harmful stereotypes therein must be prioritized in responses as well as efforts towards prevention. Based on 23 interviews conducted with NGO staff and duty-bearers in Kampala, Uganda, it was found that unique approaches to incorporating male victims may prove beneficial for men and boys, but also, for women and girls. The results are used to argue that dominant discourses around sexual violence, conflict and refugees fail men and boys by excluding them, but also, fail women and girls by missing opportunities to interrogate the very gender relations that support violence in war.
Precarious Landscapes: Labour Restructuring and Trade Union Response in Western Cape Agriculture
Base on intensive fieldwork research carried out on fruit and wine farms in the Western Cape province of South Africa, this paper examines the process of labour restructuring underway in commercial agriculture and the responses of trade unions. Job losses and labour market segmentation in agriculture have accelerated rapidly in recent years as the post-apartheid state dismantled regulatory structures, abolished subsidies and liberalized trade. The state’s pursuit of these neoliberal policies has significantly undermined its own labour legislation, which has allowed for the proliferation of atypical work arrangements. There is an increasing divide between permanent workers who have remained on farms and the precariously employed reserve armies of labour. Trade unions have largely failed to organize those precarious workers who constitute the majority of the province’s agricultural labour force. This paper situates this discussion within the broader literature on the agrarian question in the era of globalization, and examines the implications for future trade union strategy.
Opportunity Lost: An Examination of Possibilities and Challenges to Israeli-Palestinian Joint Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and their ability to Actuate Change
Before the formal declaration of the state of Israel in 1948 Dema’s grandfather, a Palestinian, worked side by side with Jews. He never had any ill will towards them, and his neighbours, regardless of religion or ethnicity shopped at his wife’s store and traded with them openly. There was no divide between East and West Jerusalem, and they all did business together and traded with each other. In 1948, when the Israeli state was created, chaos hit Dema’s family as it did for Jews and Muslims alike. In the anarchic state that existed in that period, Dema’s grandfather was killed along with two of his children. Though not many details are known about the circumstances, he and two of Dema’s would-be-aunts were among the many souls lost to the conflict. Dema’s father, rather than hating the Israelis who had now come, worked with them in business and in life in the same way his parents had done before him. He grew up before the West Bank became a part of Israel and before a wall was constructed to separate the Jews in Israel from the Muslims on the other side. He grew up in a time when you could not live in Palestine without seeing an Israeli, a time in which space was shared between Palestinians and Israelis like his parents before. He worked with them, he lived with them and many of his close friends were Israelis. During the 60’s, the integration between the two groups was so high that most Palestinians spoke Hebrew themselves.
‘Rickshaw’nomics and ‘Morales’ization: Perspectives on Rural Healthcare in Bangladesh and Bolivia
Recent buzzwords in development such as participation and empowerment perhaps warrant rethinking the way women are incorporated into decision-making governance processes. Here, the perspectives of social actors in both Bangladesh and Bolivia’s disparate medical settings are addressed. The work presented here captures two perspectives – that of the top-down narrative presented by health officials that promote the particular form of governance adopted in each country, and the bottom-up narrative of the women who utilize the services created. With reference to a private governance system of healthcare delivery – Grameen Kalyan in Bangladesh, and a public system in Bolivia – the MAS government, the relationship between the form of governance and women’s satisfaction with healthcare services is examined. By contrasting the views of rural women with official discourses the research presented here argues that there is a discrepancy between the two views. It seems to be the case that the more involved women are, and the more they can relate to the form of governance and participate in the decision making process, the more satisfied they are with the health-care system. The argument and findings here show that despite the disconnect between the two perspectives, the more women are permitted to feel that they are participating in the governance system of healthcare delivery services, the more beneficial, useful, and satisfactory they find their health services to be.
Iraq’s Economic Reform Policies: Prospects and Implications
This study seeks to provide a critical examination of Iraq’s economic reform measures that have been introduced and implemented by the US post-2003. Specifically, these reform measures aim to restructure Iraq’s previous socialist economic system through introducing a market economy characterized by an open market and integration with the global economy. In providing a critical examination, the following research question is addressed: what are the prospects for and limitations of creating an open end market in Iraq for the country’s economic development? The findings of this study represent the complexity of Iraq’s current economic situation. However, by unravelling the trade liberalization narrative using theories of trade protectionism, what seems to be apparent is that the current economic restructuring paradigm provides more implications for the country’s economic development than prospects.
Exploring the Influence of Prevailing Perceptions of Poverty in Social Policy Reform: The Case of the BIG Pilot Project in Namibia
From January 2008 to December 2009, a group of civil society organizations known as the Basic Income Grant (BIG) Coalition, piloted an Unconditional Cash Transfer program in the rural Namibian settlement of Otjivero. Roughly 930 residents received a monthly transfer of N$100 (US$13) to spend as they wish. Today the Unconditional Cash Transfer continues a bridging allowance of N$80 (US$10). Being unconditional in the nature, the BIG program constitutes a challenge to the underlying negative perceptions of ‘the poor’ that dominate mainstream development and impose conditionality.
Using the BIG Pilot Project as a case study, this paper explores the role of unconditionality in development assistance. Supporters of the BIG Pilot Project see it as a catalyst for the reduction of poverty and related problems in Otjivero. Through in-depth interviews with residents of Otjivero, this paper recounts respondents’ perception of poverty as well as their experience with the BIG program. Despite compelling evidence, critics have questioned the BIG program, most commonly arguing that it fosters dependence and promotes laziness. Through analysis of local newspapers, this paper identifies and explains the contrasting perceptions of poverty held by proponents and opponents in Namibia’s BIG debate. On the one hand, BIB advocates, such as the BIG Coalition, present individualistic explanations as the cause of poverty, while on the other hand, the political elite dwell on structural justification for poverty and inequality. Challenging both proponents and opponents, the poor recipients of the BIG Pilot Project provide a third perspective that is largely absent from the BIG discussions. This paper concludes by exploring the implications of the findings for social policy reform, highlighting the voices of the poor in the BIG debate from the viewpoint of empowerment.
Access to water and participation of rural women in water management: A case study of the Aga Khan Rural Support Program in Gujarat, India
Depletion of the world’s water resources and the deterioration of its quality is a growing international concern. Today, approximately 11% of the world’s total population doesn’t have access to safe drinking water. This case study examines how a non-governmental organization (NGO), the Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP) in Gujarat, India, uses the language of participatory development to manage its Drinking Water Supply Schemes. This study employs a qualitative, field research method to collect both primary and secondary data to explore the extent of AKRSP’s participatory development within the water sector and its implication for women. It is found that while AKRSP is adopting a range of participatory approaches, the extent to which these are truly engaging and empowering individuals, particularly women, is questionable. AKRSP continues to support the goals and objectives of the government, without truly contesting the continuation of top-down hierarchical structures. It can be concluded from the findings of this research that simply employing participatory approaches in water initiatives does not eradicate deep-rooted power dynamics within communities, which is often responsible for the management of resources and project outcomes.
Women’s Use of Formal and Informal Microfinancial Instiutions in Kabale, Uganda
Over the past thirty years, microfinance has taken the development world by storm. Because of its ability to positively impact a number of development goals and its adherence to dominant neoliberal economic theory, microfinance is praised an effective and efficient development tool. As semi-formal and formal microfinance institutions have become self-sustainable and even profitable, there has been a trend towards the privatization of the microfinance industry. It was hypothesized that the market-led industry would provide a better product and services to its clients resulting in the disappearance of traditional informal savings and credit groups. However, this has not occurred. Informal savings and credit associations remain as prominent financial institutions for many women in the developing world. This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of the formal and informal microfinance groups in Kabale Uganda. The study invokes a culture and development nexus to offer a critique of the mainstream neoliberal theory behind the formal microfinance industry. The culture and development framework is also used as a means of recognizing the voices, agency and organization of the local population’s own development initiatives as viable grassroots alternatives to mainstream development. Finally, this framework is used to argue that development cannot occur unless it is culturally appropriate and context specific. The findings demonstrate that ROSCAs offer bottom-up development that is culturally appropriate and that draws upon local rather than neoliberal values. Finally it is argued that because formal microfinance has such a strong hold on development, that it must include a strong training aspect so as to make it as effective as possible for the participants.
Domestic violence keeps rising in post-conflict settings hindering development efforts
The Major Research Paper responds to the need to inquire the underlying causes of domestic violence and to place greater emphasis on long-term prevention strategies. This qualitative study analyses the problem through the perceptions of Ugandan professionals in various sectors working in domestic violence prevention. Findings suggest that in order to strengthen multi-sectoral approaches to coordination, a consensus on the underlying causes of domestic violence is needed amongst stakeholders. One recommendation is that evidence-based holistic studies could assist in achieving this consensus. Furthermore, a key conclusion of the study illustrates that strategies could benefit from dismantling the female/victim-male/perpetrator double dichotomy in order to increase men engagement in the fight against domestic violence in post-conflict settings.
Representation of the Interests of the Poor and Historically Marginalized Groups in Rural Decentralized Institutions of Government: A Case Study of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) in Uttar Pradesh, India
India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of 2005 aims to provide livelihood security to the rural poor. The Act guarantees the right to wage employment to adults in the form of 100 days per year, per household, of unskilled, manual work on local development projects. The chief implementing agency for the MGNREGA is India’s Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI), the institution of decentralized government in rural areas. This small-scale, qualitative study has explored the implementation of this Act, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), in two districts of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The implementation of the MGNREGA by the PRI is a window through which one can study rural, decentralized government and its potential and limitations to improve the lives of the poor and historically marginalized groups both financially and politically.
Iranian Women’s Negotiations with Patriarchy: The Case of Fertility Decision-Making
Women’s reproductive right in population policies of Iran has received relatively little attention amongst population policy and development scholars. In light of this gap, this study examines women’s decision making capacity with regards to their fertility. This paper begins with the understanding that reproductive rights and women’s agency cannot be understood without due attention to structures and the context within which they are embedded. Based on interviews with eighteen Iranian women belonging to the low-income class, it was found that the women’s capacity to make decisions regarding their fertility was informed and shaped by an intersection of patriarchal institutions and practices. The results are used to illustrate the ways in which women use their fertility to negotiate in a context where their options are severely limited. Such analysis contributes towards the inclusion of women’s voices and experiences in population policy initiatives; the addition of previously ignored perspectives could better address the issue of the reproductive rights within Iran.
Participatory Development: Understanding the implications of community participation in the Secondary Education Development Program in Arusha City, Tanzania
Participatory development is a popular but contested concept that has been widely adopted by mainstream development initiatives to improve education. In Tanzania, participatory development has a long and complex history and is a crucial component of its most recent initiative to enhance the secondary education system - the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP). This study examines how communities are involved in SEDP and explores the wider implications of community participation in the program. Four major findings are drawn from this analysis. First, there is a disconnect between the ways in which SEDP policy, and program stakeholders, tend to define ‘community,’ and ‘community participation.’ Second, the types and levels of community involvement in SEDP are impacted by the socio-economic and political contexts of communities. Third, respondents are highly aware and concerned about the stratification of their education system, and link this stratification to the type of community participation that is solicited by SEDP. Lastly, respondents seem to feel that if permitted the appropriate political space, their participation in SEDP has the potential to change attitudes and values.
Improving Lives Creatively: Culture, Development and Livelihoods in Community Arts-Projects in Unquillo, Argentina
This paper examines two case studies conducted in Unquillo, Argentina: a municipally-initiated and youth-led participative free school of arts, and a community collective youth arts project. I examine how each of these projects utilizes the concept of Culture and Development as well as the Sustainable Livelihoods framework to achieve their development goals.
This paper is governed by the question: what does development look like ‘on the ground’? Is it concerned with remaining within frameworks and existing principles, or is it more flexible? Conversely, it looks at how approaches within development help us understand the limits community projects face in responding to development challenges. The research focuses on projects that are not typically articulated as ‘developmental’ but evaluates them on this basis to argue that the boundaries of development are fluid. As will be discussed – in their articulation, implementation, and evaluation of goals – the projects explored here all aimed at enhancing the quality of life for their participants. As such, they can be fairly seen through a development lens.
Fostering Good Governance Reform Through Civil Society Support: A Case Study of the Undp’s Amkeni Wakenya Programme in Kenya
This paper examines the activities of the United Nation’s Development Programme’s Amkeni WaKenya civil society democratic governance facility in Kenya. Created at the outset of the 2008 election crisis in an attempt to foster stronger CSO and CBO involvement in the sphere of good governance, this programme has had a positive effect in providing the financial and capacity building assistance Kenyan CSOs and CBOs were lacking. It has also been successful as a catalyst for civil society networking and dialogue in a traditionally divided civil realm. Using existing literature and data collected during three months of field research, this paper will argue that Kenya’s civil society has the potential to be effective if it stands to build a cohesive set of prescriptions and alternatives in policy discussions on good governance.
Private Higher Education In Afghanistan: Exploring The Process Of Commodification of Higher Education
This study explores the role of private higher education in commodifying higher education in Afghanistan. Informed by a qualitative research approach, this study explores two private higher education institutes in Kabul, Kardan and Rana, mainly utilizing such research methods as semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, reviews of official and public documents and websites, and informal observation. The study concludes that Kardan and Rana have commodified higher education and that they have legitimized the pursuit of a commodified and market-driven education.
Tertiary Education in the Development of Trinidad and Tobago: A look at the GATE Program
Over the last decade there has been a focus on higher education in Trinidad and how to make it more affordable to citizens; this has culminated with the implementation of the Government Assistance for Tuition Expenses (GATE) program in 2006, where the government fully subsidizes tertiary education at the bachelors level for citizens studying at local and regional government accredited institutions. This paper examines how higher education is being used, in the context of Trinidad and Tobago, to bring about advances in human development. It also provides an analysis of the GATE program, as this is a recent program that has received much public attention but little assessment. In setting a framework for research the concept of human development is examined; also outlined is the relationship between education and development, and the role of the state in guiding policy. The political and economic context of Trinidad and Tobago is considered, including a brief look at the country’s development plan and how education, specifically higher education, fits into it. The third section addresses the method of semi-structured interviews employed in the research project, and discusses issues related to positionality and reflexivity. An assessment of the GATE program then follows. While the program has increased access to tertiary education, it has also resulted in academic apathy by participants.
Youth and the Invisibility of Caste Discrimination in Kathmandu
In exploration of how caste discrimination occurs in Kathmandu, Nepal, the general regard for its nonexistence by youth aroused curiosities about the ways that this belief manifested itself. As the core of this paper has drawn upon this notion of the invisibility of caste discrimination in Kathmandu, the intersecting concepts of identity, place, schooling, and modernity, have been used to frame different facets of this belief to highlight that it is amid this invisibility that caste discrimination in Kathmandu is made visible through new forms of discrimination and oppression via institutional casteism, highlighted by the intersection of caste and class and maintained by discourses of modernity.
"Yes, And..." Transcending the 'Incredible' Through Humour After Torture. A case study with refugees at the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture
Proponents and critics of alternative and post-development perspectives have, over the past three decades, offered significant and fiery critiques of the modernist development project. Their views have helped shape both the methodology and the structure of this study. Bringing together the fields of theatre and development, this arts-based, participatory action research seeks to explore the relationship between humour and resilience in the lives of refugees who have experienced torture. This research is theoretical, empirical and participatory in nature and is based in large part on a case study conducted with refugees at the Canadian Centre For Victims of Torture in Toronto, who, for 10 weeks in the summer of 2011, participated in improv theatre workshops centered around the principle of ‘Yes, And…’ (acceptance and advancement). This study is exploratory; thus, it seeks to discover if, and if so in what way, the themes introduced and practiced in these improv workshops would be considered by participants to be relevant or applicable to their everyday lives. The findings are promising: the majority of participants not only claimed to appreciate and take pleasure in these weekly workshops but could also cite direct (and often surprising) ways in which they applied the principle of ‘Yes, And…’ and other skills practiced in these workshops to their everyday lives. The implications of this research are varied and far-reaching for both refugees themselves and professionals involved in post-trauma treatment in both the Canadian context and elsewhere in the world. The case study itself also offers the development community an example of an arts-based participatory action research project that is process—not product—based (lest participants and their lived experiences become a commodity) and which seeks to challenge the traditional development paradigm by ‘unmaking’ representations of “oppressed” people (in this case victims of torture) through humour.
Establishing expertise, negotiating agency: An exploration of gender based violence discourse in a case study of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh
The discourse surrounding gender based violence (GBV) has received little critical attention among development scholars in terms of how it has been established as a privileged intervention, or the way it is understood and framed in non-governmental organizations (NGOs). In light of this gap, this study explored through a case study of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) the ways in which GBV language was shaped by development experts and implicated in replicating power/knowledge hierarchies, and the ways in which local staff members utilized their agency to frame GBV to different groups With the data gathered from 26 interviews with FPAB staff, it was found that GBV was implicated in hierarchical knowledge production and that staff actively brokered meanings of GBV to different audiences. These findings add to the epistemological understanding of GBV and provide a starting point for future research involving NGOs and their engagement with GBV discourse.
Examining the Strengths and Limitations of Introducing Compulsory Kindergarten in Ghana: The Case of Ga South District
This paper examines the Government of Ghana’s efforts in expanding and improving its education system through the introduction of compulsory kindergarten. Introduced in 2007, the Early Childhood Care and Development policy seeks to make early childhood education a cornerstone of basic education by adding two years of kindergarten. Using secondary data and some primary data collected in the Ga South District of Ghana, this paper explores the effectiveness of the policy. Specifically, it outlines some of the key tenets of the policy, while discussing the effects that it has had on expanding access to education. It concludes with a discussion on the implications of introducing this policy. The research reveals that despite the positive intentions of the policy and impressive gains made from it, there are critical areas that need to be addressed.
Towards a Sustainable Peace: A Youth-Oriented Framework for Reconciliation in Bosina-Herzegovina
This paper seeks to understand peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the role youth-oriented civil society organizations (YCSOa) play in achieving the goals of sustainable peace. This study finds that there are limitations to liberal peace theory advancing sustainable peace in Bosnia. Furthermore, J.P. Lederach’s Framework for Reconciliation was found to be an applicable alternative peacebuilding model in the Bosnian context; and, certain YCSOs in Bosnia-Herzegovina were found to already promote aspects of Lederach’s Framework for Reconciliation in their missions, programs and activities. These findings support the argument that a Youth-oriented Framework for Reconciliation provides an alternative peacebuilding model in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Cultural Expression and Cultural Production in South African Development: An Historical Context and Contemporary Case
This paper expands on a body of literature that recognises cultural expression as contributing and significant variable in the dialectical relationship between culture and development. It does so by probing the epistemological and ontological links between conceptions of culture and cultural expression, and the process of national development policy making in South Africa. To frame this discussion, this paper critically evaluates the changing role of the culture-development nexus within national South African development policy and how this changing role has affected civil society. Building on this context, the this paper will highlight a specific case study of one nationally-focused and funded civil society organisation in operating in South Africa called Phumani Paper, whose experience calls attention to the complexities inherent in the intentional operationalization of cultural expression for development, and highlights the need for greater critical attention to be paid on the variable of culture within development theory and practice.
Human Rights Defender: Southern Activist Realized or Exigency of Liberalism?
Over the past three decades a discourse based around a new global political subjectivity has become embedded in international discourses. The discourse of the human rights defender, the model non-state subject-actor in the age of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, extends the liberal project down to the national, individual, and organisational level. The criticisms which bare force on the human rights discourse similarly pose relevant questions for the human rights defenders discourse. This paper examines the background from which the human rights defender emerges and is made necessary, the intrinsic construction of the concept and the institutional forms which have sprouted around it, and compares the construct to analogous discourses of civil society and new social movements. In analysis this paper raises a critical voice to define what the discourse contributes to and conceals from the originary goals of human rights, to wit: social justice, equality, and peace.
Will The Internet “Save The World”? U.S. Export Controls, Internet Freedom, Cybertopia, and Cyber-emancipation
Cybertopia, or cyberutopianism, is the idea that the Internet will “save the world” – or at least lead to economic, political and social development. Currently it is being evoked to discuss social movements or socio-political uprisings that use the Internet to mobilize, such as Iran, Ukraine, Tunisia, and Egypt, whose “wins” are frequently being attributed to access and use of the Internet. Yet, cybertopia is not a value-free point of view, and the Internet is not a neutral open-access technology. This paper examines one case that brings forth these tensions – U.S. export controls, which actively limit the dissemination of U.S. owned online goods and services (such as Facebook or twitter) to sanctioned countries – and the implications this type of policy has on cybertopic discourse, as well as the emancipatory potential of the Internet.
Fair Trade Mainstreaming and Alternative Voices: Challenges and Opportunities for Today’s Fair Trade Organizations
The place of FTOs within an increasingly mainstream fair trade system will be the focus of this paper. In section one, I will argue that the fair trade system is becoming more oriented toward the interests of profit-driven enterprises. First, I will argue that some fair trade labeling initiatives (LIs) focus increasingly on expanding the fair trade market by bringing in a greater number of profit-driven actors, despite cries of protest from pillars of fair trade like fair trade organizations (FTOs), and with little regard for the negative impact it might have on the fair trade mission. I demonstrate that these LIs are structurally more powerful within the fair trade system than FTOs or other actors that are not profit-driven and favor more ‘alternative’ trade practices. Second, I will demonstrate how this uneven power dynamic has led changes to occur within fair trade that benefit corporations and LIs at the expense of producers and FTOs. In section two, I will demonstrate the impact of this mainstreaming phenomenon upon FTOs. I will argue that despite their position of comparatively little power vis-à-vis large corporations and even labeling organizations, FTOs are finding a number of ways to push back against mainstreaming, with varying degrees of success. Finally, I will outline a number of possible future actions that could be taken by FTOs and their allies to ensure fair trade’s original mission is not lost.
Women, Popular Education and Social Change: A Colombian Case Study
The education of women has been given a primordial role as a catalyst of change in recent development discourse. Although in agreement that education is fundamental to the empowerment of women, this study seeks to demonstrate that current efforts to achieve gender parity informal education –focused on better integrating women into the existing structures of society- are inadequate and misguided, and will not bring significant change to the position of women. Turning to popular education as an alternative, the paper examines the ways in which this approach, which seeks to address the structural dimensions of women’s oppression, can be more effective in empowering women, in addition to demonstrating the potential that lies in popular education, this study also draws attention to factors that may limit the impact popular education can actually have on the ground. Through the analysis of the experiences of a human rights organization in Colombia, this study demonstrates that regardless of how appealing and promising popular education may be theoretically putting theory into practice is not always an easy task because of theoretical complexities, power dynamics and the context where popular education is being applied.
Trojan Horses? Supermarkets, EU Accession and the Slovak Agro-Food System
The rapid penetration of foreign supermarkets in Slovakia since the late 1990s has profoundly reshaped the domestic agro-food-system. While there is a growing body of literature on the modern retail sector, it often fails to situate the analysis within a global political economy framework. This research, based on three months of fieldwork and document analysis, demonstrates the deeply political nature of the supermarkets’ rise to a dominant position within food commodity chains, and the impact this has had on Slovak agro-food producers. Major findings of this research are that the expansion of multinational retail has been contingent upon the strong presence of the state and its embrace of a pro-corporate regulatory regime and upon the power of the European Union to secure its own interests in Slovakia through the accession process. This research shows how the unrestrained power of retail corporations has negatively impacted on Slovak agro-food production. First, it analyzes the retailers’ role in the increased imports of agro-food products and the consequences this has on domestic food producers. Second, it examines how the retailers abuse their power through financial requirements they impose on their suppliers.
Environmental Governance of the Extractive Sector in Peru
This paper examines environmental policy governing the mining industry in Peru. While the mining industry is economically important to Peru, its unequally distributed environmental impacts have prompted social conflict. This research specifically explores the role of the national government in mediating the promotion and regulation of extractive industries. The data comes from a literature review and qualitative research in Peru from the summer of 2010. The paper first considers the evolution of Peru’s environmental regulations. Second, it draws on the case of the Yanacocha mine to examine environmental governance in practice. A discussion of the national interest highlights how the exclusion of indigenous peoples in Peru is connected to the government’s facilitation of investment. The finding of the paper is that the regulatory regime in Peru remains weak and serves to promote investment in the mining sector to the detriment of sound environmental policy and civic participation.
From Good Intentions to Self-Interest: Canada’s Contribution to Development Assistance
This paper’s analysis of Canadian aid effectiveness shows that CIDA, Canada’s leading development agency, lacks the autonomy needed to design and implement effective foreign aid polices. Studied through a historical perspective, the conditions which have allowed CIDA to currently operate as an arm within the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade are explained. While critics of foreign aid argue that it has failed, I contend that the issue is not that aid has failed, but that the motivating reasons of giving development assistance create inefficiencies in Canada’s aid programming.
Incorporating Food and Nutrition Security into HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention: Learning from The Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare
The HIV/AIDS epidemic currently affecting the lives and livelihoods of people living in Sub-Saharan Africa is both increasing, and increased by, the level of food and nutrition insecurity of the region. This research seeks to explore this relationship between HIV/AIDS and food security and to provide an analysis of a HIV/AIDS program that is currently operating in Western Kenya – The Academic Model for Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH). This analysis revealed that AMPATH has created an innovative and holistic approach to HIV/AIDS care that incorporates food and nutrition security and livelihood support for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, AMPATH needs to take further steps to effectively utilize the available knowledge of the HIV/AIDS-food security nexus in order to create community-wide resistance and resilience to HIV infection and its impacts.
Local Government and Poverty Reduction in Ghana: The Case of GA South Municipal Assembly
This research paper argues that decentralization in Ghana has the potential to reduce the poverty at the local level. This is because, local government provides the opportunity for citizens to participate in local decision making and also, through enhanced service delivery, thereby reducing the socio-economic dimensions of poverty. However, the poverty reduction potential of decentralization has not been realized because there is a lack of citizens’ interest in the local government system, consequently rendering the system ineffective. The study found out that, in the case of the GA South Municipal Assembly, there is evidence of considerable effort to reduce poverty through participation and enhanced service delivery, however, due to citizen’s apathy and lack of interest in the affairs of local governance, achieving the poverty reduction objectives of decentralization have been difficult to realize. For local government to be sustained in Ghana, not only should citizens be empowered through participation, more importantly, local government units should also be empowered through capacity building.
Citizenship Rights and Articulations of Indigenous Resistance in the Ecuadorian Extractive Frontier
This thesis is primarily based on fieldwork research conducted in Ecuador in the summer of 2010. It focuses on the experiences of resistance to large-scale mining of the Shuar nationality in the Cordillera del Cóndor, in the Southeastern provinces of Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe. The case against mining, as articulated by the Shuar, is framed in terms of past experience with extraction, as well as cultural considerations with respect natural resource management. By invoking collective rights enshrined in the 2008 Constitution, indigenous groups seek to legitimize their opposition to extractive industries. Resistance is a process manifested legally or more forcibly, where the main objective is to ensure the preservation of cultural principles essential to the construction of indigenous identity. A closer study of Shuar resistance to large scale mining projects in their ancestral territories is crucial to understanding indigenous opposition to this type of activities in Ecuador today.
Moving Beyond Isolated, Fragmented and Reactive Resistance in Colombia? An Exploration of COMOSOC's Counter-Hegemonic Project
While neoliberal hegemony is said to have waned since the late 1990s its fundamental orientation continues to dictate development policy around the globe. Colombia is an example of a neoliberal regime that is particularly unwavering in comparison to its relatively moderate and reformist neighbours throughout Latin America that comprise the ‘pink tide’, and its development model has wreaked havoc on a growing number of the country’s citizens. A considerable amount of resistance exists in the country, but to date it remains isolated, fragmented and reactive in nature. There has yet to emerge a coherent and comprehensive counter-hegemonic project able to reconcile the various groups in civil society and create consensus. COMOSOC (Coalición de Movimientos y Organizaciones Sociales de Colombia), a heterogeneous network of Colombian social movements and organizations, is attempting to contribute to the process of constructing this type of counter-hegemonic project by reconciling the different political agendas found within the country’s diverse civil society. Further, they explicitly aim to contribute to the construction of an alternative development model for the country that prioritizes popular sector concerns and can effectively challenge the neoliberal model of the current regime. This research study is an investigation of the dynamics and politics that emerge when this type of counter-hegemonic work is undertaken. It will also highlight the specific difficulties faced by resistance groups in Colombia, offer insights into what ingredients are currently absent to an effective counter-hegemonic strategy, and suggest the role and position COMOSOC is likely to have, should such a project eventually emerge.
Rethinking Democracy and ‘Twenty-First Century Socialism’ in Venezuelan Politics: Advances, Challenges and Contradictions
The election of populist leader Hugh Chávez in 1998 set democracy in Venezuela down a profound and perhaps irreversible path of change. With the benefit of over twelve years in hindsight, this paper aims to critically re-examine the present status and future possibilities for the model of participatory, ‘protagonistic’ democracy (PPD) that is currently being pursued as a part of the wider hegemonic project of ‘21st century socialism’ in the country. In doing so, I argue that contemporary Venezuelan politics are best understood through Gramsci’s notion of ‘hegemony’ and Laclau’s theory of ‘populist reason’, which together permit one to more accurately grasp how ‘popular’ collective identities are hegemonically constructed in situations where strategies of transformative change are being pursued. On this basis, I further argue that the populist pursuit of ‘21st century socialism’ has entailed a number of advances, challenges and contradictions for the PPD model since its introduction in 2005.
A Political Economy Lens To Focus Renewable Energy Development in South Africa
Through a case study of the electricity sector in South Africa, this paper will shed light on the important political and economic linkages within the energy industry that influence and shape the development of renewable energy for the needs of the country. The paper starts by exploring the South African energy discourse to show how the debate misses important political and economic features that are influencing the energy industry in that country. Using the lens of the political economy, the historical foundations of the Minerals-Energy Complex will be explored, opening up to a discussion on the current environment for energy policy in South Africa, under the modern neoliberal paradigm. Finally the paper will close highlighting areas for research and policy engagement by using human rights and participatory development approaches within a political economy framework.
The discourse of Development and Environmental Sustainability: Desertification in the Syrian Badiyah and the Bedouin Livestock Production System – A Case Study
In Power of Development (1995), Jonathan Crush delineates a fundamental paradox within development that proceeds as follows: On the one hand, the discourse of development stipulates that development constitutes the optimal state of affairs for humanity and therefore enlists bureaucratic state power in its global project to facilitate development worldwide; on the other hand, however, development actually engenders multiplying environmental and socioeconomic dilemmas that inherently contravene the ideological proclamations of the discourse of development and also remain problematic regardless of its successive policy treatments. Nevertheless, development itself retains its political validity as a legitimate global undertaking, whilst the discourse of development not only withstands its repeated policy failures but also undertakes to rationalize and correct the numerous environmental and socioeconomic crises of development via adaptive modifications of its theoretical suppositions and policy models that effectively broaden both its ideological jurisdiction and its executive capacity.
Flames, not Flowers: Women’s Empowerment in the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB)
Women’s activism in the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB) has received relatively little attention amongst social movement scholars, despite
the fact that their activism has spanned over 26 years. In light of this gap, the intention of this study is to examine women’s activism in ICJB, and
specifically the potential for women’s empowerment that results from such popular movement participation. With data gained from 25 interviews with women
activists in ICJB, it was found that women’s empowerment occurs at all stages of movement participation, from the initial mobilization to the outcomes of
their participation. Such findings contribute significantly to the growing data on the transformatory potential in women’s popular movement participation.
Third World Coalition Diplomacy and Global Economic Governance: A Look at the Group of 77 and the IMF
Since the 1980s the IMF and World Bank have imposed conditionalities on developing countries in exchange for loans. These policies are well-documented to have had adverse and at best limited impacts on economic growth and development in debtor nations, and are undoubtedly a result of the prevailing decision-making structures of these institutions which give little voice to developing countries. This paper critically examines the policy positions of the Group of 77 – the largest intergovernmental organization of developing states in the UN – on the reformation of the IMF’s governance structure during the OPEC recession and the current global financial crisis. It aims to assess whether the Group has effectively enabled the developing world to articulate and promote its collective economic interests. Drawing on a historical institutionalist framework, the paper finds that the G-77 has been only marginally successful in reforming IMF governance, due largely to limitations in its own governance structure.
Participation and its Implications for Children’s Epistemologies: The Case of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon
Children’s epistemologies emphasize the ways that children are active agents and that they are capable of knowing and producing knowledge based on the unique combination of influences in their own surroundings. While adult-centric attitudes and structures have resulted in children’s views often being ignored, there is growing recognition that it is valuable and informative not only to involve children in research processes, but also to listen to and learn from their own representations of their experiences. This paper examines the perceptions of Palestinian children living a refugee camp in Lebanon of challenges they face and their involvement in related decision-making processes, and discusses the role that children’s participation plays in children‘s epistemologies.
A case for Performance as Cultural Development in Kingston Jamaica
Measuring development has become an arduous and technocratic task. Postmodern theory asks us to acknowledge the differences in human beings in order to account for all minorities; however, this leads to endless possibilities and little practical gain. Martha Nussbuam’s capabilities theory, instead, acknowledges the similarities in human and provides us with a succinct, yet, flexible list of ‘capabilities’ necessary for a flourishing human life. Using performances by Women’s Media Watch, Jamaica, the following paper explores the shifting power and hierarchy that takes place between the audience and actor, academics and activists and researcher and researched. Using Brechtian theory, underscored by Marx and Gramsci, I argue that these performances reveal a complex view of social and cultural structures that both compete and merge with one another. Within these performances, negotiations of dialogue, language, and interpretation elucidate the struggles of dominance and decentering. However, existing within these shadowy facets and struggle and survival are several instances of commonality where actors and audience, leaders and participants, researcher and researched have moments of shared experience. These moments, utterances and actions of sameness provide a glimpse into the “humanness” so endorsed by Nussbaum and her capabilities theory. Thus, Women’s Media Watch’s performances provide a tangible, though on a micro level, display of likeness prompting a call for much more emphasis, for development, on the sameness which all humans share rather than simply on difference.
Maintaining Power Through an Ethnic Divide in Guyana: A Gramscian Interpretation of Civil Society Engagement with the Poverty Reduction Strategy papers (PRSP)
Through a Gramscian interpretation, this thesis examines civil society’s relationship with the state in Guyana and aims to challenge the mainstream notion that suggests civil society is inherently a driving force in consolidating democracy and challenging poor governance. Voices of civil society representatives narrate their experiences throughout this thesis and show that the failure to address the centralized governance structure has enabled racialized politics that systematically marginalizes Afro-Guyanese and Amerindian people. This thesis will show how the racialization of politics deeply divides the population, preventing unity and protecting the state from substantive challenges to its rule. As civil society attempts to challenge this reality its actions are co-opted through a loss of autonomy and inclusion into empty consultative policy making processes, sidelining and diverting criticisms. This paper examines this reality utilizing the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process as a case study.
Toward a Shift in the Migration Paradigm: Inclusion, Exclusion, Immigration and Development in the Cape Verde Islands
This thesis analyses Cape Verde’s pivotal position as a transhipment centre for Sub-Saharan African migrants in transit to Europe, suggesting the islands have become a liminal space and, often, a final destination for individual migratory projects. The study discusses the early stages of public engagement with immigration, and how the debate is affecting the construction of identity and ideas about national development. It proposes that the island should be understood within a wider migratory context that includes the changing geopolitics of Europe. While also suggesting, from a strategic perspective, that immigration policies in the EU have pushed the de facto European border westwards and southwards to the West African coast between Morocco and Cape Verde, the thesis uses a postcolonial theoretical framework and proposes a specific model of inclusion and exclusion to understand the unique features of the integration of Africans in Cape Verde, with its specific racial ideology, hybridism.
When History Intervenes: The Prospects and Limitations for Participatory Resettlement in Contemporary Ethiopia
Michael Cernea’s Impoverishments, Risk and Reconstruction (IRR) model is the primary point of reference in planning and judging the adequacy of resettlement. Regarded by Cernea as central to the strategies charted out by the IRR model is the informed and active participation of dislocated peoples in resettlement. As the notion of participation is being embraced as an integral part of the solution to the conundrums associated with dislocation and resettlement, it has become more evident that the effectiveness of the term is closely related to both the social and political contexts of where its applied. This paper seeks to take up rare discussion on the contextual understanding of participation and resettlement in Ethiopia, in order to assess the IRR models strategies for resettlement with participation. This discussion is grounded on understanding the continuities and discontinuities of resettlement in Ethiopia as a case illustration to assess the practical and conceptual strengths and limitations of Michael Cernea’s Impoverishments Risks and Reconstruction model (IRR).
Sowing Security, Harvesting change? A Critical Examination of Agroecology as a Vehicle towards Food Sovereignty in Rural Gambia
Despite its pervasiveness in Africa, conventional agriculture has faces increasing criticism as environmentally socially and economically unsustainable. Substantiating such claims were the 2008 global food crisis as well as ongoing hunger, malnourishment, and food insecurity that plague over one billion humans. Staggeringly, nearly three-quarters of that one billion are small farmers, the majority of whom are women. A crisis of this proportion has, among other things; led many to question the fundamental rationale of deepening free trade in agriculture and particularly, in Africa where agriculture and food systems based on sustainability, self reliance, and equitability have re-emerged as important political issues in the global south.
Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Resistances to Canadian Mining Corporations in Rural Honduras
Increasingly more communities across the globe are engaged in conflict with Canadian mining companies. The communities throughout Honduras, the second poorest country in the Western hemisphere, are no stranger to these conflicts. Nine years after Hurricane Mitch descended upon the most marginalized regions of the country, the Canadian gold mining companies that came in alongside relief efforts continue to exploit the land, the resources and the people of Honduras. This resource exploitation has not gone uncontested. Rather, resistance movements have emerged and activists are engaging in diverse strategies to negotiate their rights with mining companies and government officials. In this paper, I will offer an exploration of the distinct experiences of resistance movement to mining in Honduras. I will draw on resource mobilization theory to argue that the resistance movement to mining faces formidable challenges in its efforts to negotiate with mining companies. There are three key factors that constrain the movement: a lack of material and non-material resources, an unfavorable structure of political opportunities because of the repression of protest and the Honduran governments’ pro-mining position and the absence of bonding social capital as demonstrated by the disunity between community organizations. This research will provide helpful insight for government policy makers, company-community relations officials and community activists about the nature of resistance movements and the factors that may lead to more harmonious relations between the various stakeholders.
NGO Social Service Delivery: Displacing the State?
This study analyses a phenomenon that has become increasingly visible in the African continent: this is the proliferation of NGO social service delivery. In particular, it examines some of the ramifications of the shift from state to NGO service for the role of the state in development processes. The work begins by a historical overview of African state agency in service delivery processes. Following this, there is an analysis of the various drivers behind the growth of NGOs in service delivery. Finally, the work looks at the implications of the expansion of NGO agency into spaces that were historically occupied by the state and the ensuing deligitimizing of the state.
Promoting Human Rights Through Human Rights Education: The Mexican Experience
At present, the promotion of Human rights through Human Rights Education (HRE) is a theme explored from different approaches in diverse fields of study. The potential of HRE has been praised by international organizations such as the United Nations who has urged governments to create national HRE strategies or plans as a way for promoting human rights in their territories. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the strengths and limitations of the National Human Rights Education Plan (PNEDH) in Mexico. The central argument is that although HRE has great potential for the promotion of human rights, particularly the right to education. The limitations of National Human Rights Education Plan are due to four main factors: Inadequate harmonization and coordination of tasks between specialized ministries of the state and civil society, insufficient public resources, lack of capacity to adopt or implement HRE themes in the formal curriculum and finally the formal school system in Mexico has not been able to acknowledge that there are factors that influence the outcome of HRE such as family and community. The study concludes that in the analysis of the Mexican HRE experience, it is necessary to address the four limitations outlined and also to complement HRE with an efficient research system and effective access to justice to link HRE with the real promotion of human rights.
Access to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: A Case Study of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon
The vast migration of refugee populations throughout the developing world has presented more than merely geo-political disarray. Both social and economic implications have arisen in terms of sustainability and development for these refugee groups. Certain refugee situations have stretched into longer than expected periods of time, whereby some refugees have been born in the host country, yet have not been given any rights that one would have as a citizen.
Race in Development: How Race Informs and Impacts Southern Development Projects - A Case Study
This paper critically examines the role of race in the field of international development. The aims of this study are to investigate how race operates within the context of Western development interventions, to explore the racialized underpinnings of development discourse, and to consider the function of practitioners’ positionality and racialized ontology in their interactions with the subject of development. Through a qualitative study predominantly employing participant observation, this paper analyzes the experiences of the youth and directors of a non-governmental organization in Kampala, Uganda with foreign, short-term development practitioners. It presents several vignettes and discusses possible meanings and implications as suggested by racialization and whiteness theory.
Negotiating collective identity for differentiated citizenship: processes of articulation and positioning in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh
This research paper examines the processes of collective identity formation as it pertains to communities in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. It does do by detailing how collective identity formation was linked to the struggle for differentiated citizenship, which challenges the perceived ethnic homogeneity of Bangladesh. Three central conclusions are subsequently drawn from this research. The first is that the successful formation of a collective identity js the result of sustained cultural and political work among key actors of a given community, involving processes of articulation and positioning. This serves to document the agency of these actors. The second is that collective identities are constructed in relation to the availability of, and accessibility to, political opportunities. The third is that collective identities correspond to specific contexts and thus offer different advantages for negotiating differentiated citizenship.
Bringing The Outsiders In: Community-Based Organizations And Local Governance in Rural Haiti
This thesis examines the role of rural Haitian community-based development organizations (CBOs) in facilitating participation in local governance. Based on a case study of three CBOs in two rural areas, the research finds that CBOs are actively involved in setting local governance agendas, and in taking on governance responsibilities in the absence of state. Social stratification within CBOs, and the weakness of the local government structure are significant barriers to overcoming the long-standing marginalization of rural areas in Haiti.
The Meaning of Midwifery in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico: Tradition, Modernity, Power and Agency
In a context of government efforts to increase access to doctor-led maternity care, this study seeks to explore the meanings clients and midwives give to a midwifery model which draws upon traditional and biomedical knowledge. Along with participant observation, twenty-three in-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with midwives and midwifery clients in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. Participants consistently contrasted midwifery and doctor-led care preferring midwifery which they see as a move respectful and supportive care model that supports women’s knowledge, control and ability to birth ‘naturally.” Main conclusions include that midwives and clients pragmatically weigh multiple factors as they actively resist less supportive care focused on efficiency and negotiate the power relations surrounding maternity care to create an alternative modernity. This study argues that development efforts that aim to improve maternal health must go beyond a focus on birth outcomes and access to biomedical care to include women’s agency.
Models of Social Development Applied in the Case of the “Plan Ceibal” in Uruguay
The central aim of this research is to critically examine the “Plan Ceibal” as a project for national development in Uruguay. The study explores three areas: the development approach, focusing on the use of technology to promote social change; the role of the state as facilitator of such process; and the communication model to consider potentialities and limitations for social dialogue. The method applied is a discourse analysis of the official documents issued by the various public offices during the last three years: 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Assessing the strengths and limitations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Initiatives: A Case Study of two MNCs in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in Bangalore, India
This qualitative research study contributes to a contextualized understanding of the CSR policies of two IT companies operating in Bangalore, India. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the strengths and limitations of CSR initiatives from the perspective of the project’s target population, and to critically analyze whether the CSR initiatives are responsive to the development needs, concerns, and priorities of the communities at the receiving end of these initiatives. Such an approach is crucial for understanding what CSR means for the poor and disadvantaged groups and how CSR can be utilized as a development tool for improving the lives of the marginalized and disadvantaged groups in India.
Examining the Clean Development Mechanism: Implications for combating climate change and for development
This Major Research Paper (MRP) examines the approval process of the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as it pertains to a reforestation projecting occurring in Minas Gerais, Brazil. I examine and address the documentation used in the CDM approval process to assess this project’s contribution to offsetting greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development. This example allows me to discuss the practicalities, shortcomings and potential of the CDM. Specifically, the concept of additionality and the project’s social and environmental contributions are scrutinized to identify whether some of the critiques surrounding the CDM are inherent or whether the problem lies in the initial selection and validation phrases.
Regional Disparities in Resource Allocation: The Case of Northern Ghana
Perhaps one measure of the legitimate success of development is not only in how governments and policies deal with poverty, but also how they deal with regional inequalities which both produce and reinforce this. Such is the case of a long and intractable problem of the multiple inequalities between the northern regions in Ghana and other parts of the country. This study takes a critical look at the historical background of underdevelopment in northern Ghana. While colonial anti-development policy, perceived by some writers, as the origin of northern Ghana’s poverty, is given a critical review, the study focuses primarily on the post-independence government policies of neglect and disparities in resource allocation, which have been reinforced by the World Bank’s economic reforms and neoliberal policies. The study also explores the depth of poverty in the north, areas of resource disparities, some implications of these disparities, and why post-independence governments have not been able to change this colonial legacy.
Analysing a Women’s Empowerment Program in Lahore, Pakistan
This paper looks at issues surrounding the definition, contestation and measurement of empowerment through analyzing an NGO-led women’s empowerment program in Lahore, Pakistan. I suggest a framework consisting of three components (material component, critical consciousness component and the enabling environment component) that can aid the analysis of women’s empowerment programs in Pakistan and similar contexts. Through looking at both micro-credit and adult-literacy/skills-building programs the paper emphasizes that empowerment of women must include both women’s practical and strategic interests in order to lead a long lasting transformations in their position. The case study also suggests that an effort has to be made to include poor women in rural and slum settings, in the designing, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their empowerment programs.
Negotiating the Flood: The Encounter with Climate Change in Tuvalu
The purpose of this thesis is to begin an unraveling of the encounter taking place between universal Climate Change and Tuvalu. Based on ten weeks of fieldwork on two Tuvaluan islands, the work provides a preliminary description of the dynamics this encounter has generated and poses questions for further investigation of the topic. Central to this encounter is the place of Christianity in the lives of Tuvaluan people. The negotiations and new associations with Climate Change that emerge through the encounter raise questions about the politics of universal nature, knowledge, and faith.
The African and Caribbean Council on HIV in Ontario and Community Participation: Challenges and Prospects
The African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO) is a provincial organization committed to HIV prevention, treatment, research and advocacy. A key principle of ACCHO’s strategy is ensuring that African and Caribbean community members are involved in its work. Community participation has been identified as a critical component of HIV prevention worldwide. This study examines the mechanisms that ACCHO has put in place to facilitate community participation. To provide a balance view of how ACCHO involves the community in its work, the study also highlights some of the challenges associated with ACCHO’s work.
GHANA: DEVELOPMENT IN A BALANCE Between Energy Policy, Climate Change and Global Sustainable/Green Development
There is a direct link between energy and poverty as energy plays a critical role in reducing poverty and improving overall human welfare. However, fossil fuels, the world primary energy source for development are also the main culprit for climate change. Responding to climate change hinges on two fronts: (a) developing renewable sources of energy for development, (b) addressing inequities between rich and poor nations. This is recognized as global crises but it is a crucial front in the battle for global justice. Green or Sustainable development is a huge capital investment not only in terms of renewable energy development, but also to upgrade the technology they power to make modern life possible.
Agents and Appendages, ‘Ballers and Beggars: A Critical Examination of Disability and Sport as a Vehicle of Development in Urban Ghana
Up until recently, persons with disability (PWD), and even more so, the relationship between disability and sports, had generally been written out of discussion of development. Within the past fifteen years, however, there has been a proliferation of ‘development through sport’ initiatives and widespread promotion of the intended and unintended outcomes of participation in sport for persons living in low and middle-income countries. Through qualitative research methods, this study explores the notion of sport and physical activity serving as a vehicle for the human development of PWD, namely in terms of its alleged ability to expand choices, as well as to foster inclusion, integration, health and well-being. It presents these players as they are, active agents, and highlights their engagement in daily struggles to be taken seriously in sport and in society. The setting is urban Ghana and the players are the female and male athletes of the Ghana Society for the Physically Disabled.
Corruption and Development: A Case Study on an Upazila Parishod (Sub-District) in Bangladesh
This study explores corruption through the examination on an upazila parishod (Sub-district) in Bangladesh. It analyzed primary and secondary data that gathered from different sources, including the field. The study critically examines various aspects of corruption that affect the functions of decentralized local government and local development processes in Bangladesh. The study views corruption as an institutional and political phenomenon. In order to get a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, the study also examines different cases and considers individual perspectives on how individuals deal with corruption.
Reconciliation in Transitional Societies Building Durable Peace: At the Nexus of Security, Development, and Governance in Ghana and Liberia
Why Pursue Peace and Development? One of the world’s most pressing and complex issues is the preservation of peace. Since the founding of the United Nations, there have been more than one hundred major conflicts that have left millions of people dead, and resulted in millions of internally displaced persons or refugees, many of whom have fallen victim of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The causes of conflict are pervasive and the consequences are devastating and toxic. When conflict breaks out, development is derailed and human rights violations imploded, with profound implications on human security, justice, equality, local infrastructure and institutions, and social, political, and economic development.
“Making Noise”: The Role of Women’s NGOs in the Passage of Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act
This paler examines how Ghanaian women’s NGOs succeeded in raising public awareness about domestic abuse, and lobbying for a Domestic Violence Act, 2007 (Act 732). Employing a combination of primary and secondary research, I trace the activities that led to the Domestic Violence Act, and discuss the advocacy strategies women’s NGOs used to tackle domestic abuse within a larger framework of promoting gender justice. My framework is informed by Keck and Sikkink’s (1998) analysis of how women’s groups mobilize to address gender inequalities and shape policy outcomes, namely through the dynamic interaction between three factors: political opportunities, forming strategic alliances and framing domestic violence as a human rights violation.
Is Participatory Development A Means To Local Democracy? The Case of Decentralization in Kerala, India
In countries that are a part of the ‘late-developing world’, there often exists certain social, economic, and political conditions that inhibit the opportunity and capability of subordinate groups to exercise their rights, participate in governance, and socially and/or economically benefit from ‘development’ projects or reforms. Although there is no ‘one-size-fits-all” approach to development, I will be examining democratic decentralization as one means to local development. The success of Kerala’s development model is gauged by Sen’s (1999) capability model, as well as one of Crook and Sverrisson’s (1999) areas of impact: responsiveness. The main factor in the success of democratic decentralization in Kerala is the working relationship between the state and civil society. This paper concludes with the notion that it is not the role of democratic decentralization to directly reduce poverty. It may however, provide the environment to participate, tools, infrastructure, and knowledge transfer, all of which can possibly increase ‘freedoms’ and ‘capability’ for a better life.
“We have communism now, but under the EU not Russia.” The Relationship between the European and farmers in Poland: ‘Expert’ vs. Local Knowledge
The Polish agricultural sector and rural communities have experienced rapid changes since Poland entered the European Union (EU) in 2004. Poland, in comparison to other EY members continues to have the largest rural population and employment in the agricultural sector. Despite these facts, the Polish rural population has experienced social exclusion and inequality. Although the EU has setout many goals for rural communities in Poland, economic goals rather than livelihoods of local farmers appear to be the focus. As a result, local farmers are pressured to alter the structure of their farm and farming activities in ways in which local knowledge is managed and reproduced are also shifting. Drawing upon literature of the EU and agricultural programs in Poland as well interviews with local farmers in the region of Suwalki, Poland, this paper critically examines the ways in which EU’s agricultural policies and programs are altering the everyday lives of farmers in Poland.
The International Aid Architecture and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: A Critical Examination of the 1906 Electoral Process
In this post-Cold War era, war and civil unrest have become scourges that must be prevented and controlled, and peacebuilding has been mobilized to that end. In this context, democracy promotion or holding elections are viewed as the best legitimate means for conflict resolution. However, ill-timed post-conflict elections might end up exacerbating the conflicts they are intended to end. As this critical examination of the 1996 Sierra Leone post-conflict elections suggests, the international community’s heavy focus on elections as strategy for war termination and democratization is sometimes driven by ideology rather than the quest for a pragmatic solution that would befit the specific dynamics of the conflict they are managing. Although the Sierra Leone 1996 electoral process successfully ensured the transfer of power to civilian a civilian government, they nonetheless failed to meet the dual objectives of peacebuilding: war termination and democratization.
Globalization and Economic Policy in Guyana: An examination of economic change and the effects of policy on low-income women
The globalization of neoliberal economic policy has brought many challenges for women living in the Caribbean. In Guyana economic events such as the introduction Structural Adjustment Programs and the new Value Added Tax have resulted in difficult consequences for low-income women. Their participation in local, regional and national economies is from insignificant, despite their lack of appearance in census data and other conventional economic indicators. Guyanese women’s unpaid labour or ‘caring work’ is necessary to the functioning of the economy and society; however, national economic policies, which are influenced by the international community, continue to ignore their basic needs and their economic success.
Negotiating Power: TOSTAN’S Village Empowerment Program and the Movement To Abandon Female Circumcision in Senegal
Women’s empowerment programs seeking to abandon female circumcision need to give importance to the process of achieving empowerment as well as the outcome within any abandonment program. Empowerment in this paper is defined as a process of engagement, debate and collective effort to negotiate power relations for women in Senegal who practice circumcision as a product of culture or religion and to enact agency over their decision-making capabilities. This definition allows us to focus on the abandonment of female circumcision in Senegal. Three major conclusions are drawn from this study. First, this study involves a discussion on the meaning of a process-oriented approach to empowerment. Second, throughout this study social norms are used to negotiate power and account for a sense of agency for women in Senegal. Lastly, the language of rights is used which involves methods which view women and men as central to social transformation.
Fair Trade Cotton: Peril and Promise in the Garment Industry
This paper explores some of the fundamental problems in the Global Apparel Value Chain, and looks at how Fair Trade can and cannot respond to these issues. It addresses the question of whether Fair Trade can create a legitimate alternative to what has historically been an exploitative industry. In the first section, the paper breaks down the chain into its main stakeholders, that is, farmers, textile workers and consumers. It first looks at what the main challenges are for each sector. The second section follows with an analysis of Fair Trade’s history, looking at how the movement grew over time and what it currently means, including an examination of what different models of Fair Trade mean for producers, workers and the overall structure of Fair Trade certification. The final section looks at the major objections to Fair Trade in the Global Apparel Value Chain and addresses these concerns. It follows by examining Fair Trade’s application and potential outcomes for the main stakeholders described above.